Although Finland achieved a widely acclaimed transformation to become a leading knowledge-based economy in the late 20th century, the 2009 recession and disruptive change contributing to a deep restructuring of the information and communication technology (ICT) industry and the downsizing of traditional sectors have weighed on the economy, productivity growth and international competitiveness. Numerous policy reforms have since been undertaken, and public and private investment, especially in applied R&D, has been cut back. Strengthening and lifting Finland’s innovation system out of a period of uncertainty requires a coherent and unified new vision for science, technology and innovation (STI), renewed investment and policy instruments. This vision should be oriented towards renewal tackling societal challenges and developing new knowledge-based competitive advantages at global scale. Success calls for better co-ordination and co-operation among policy actors and national and regional-levels, and further internationalisation.
Digitalisation has already been under way for about half a century, yet it is only now that everyone is talking about a digital revolution. Why? One reason is the spread of faster and better connectivity. In 2013, about 80% of OECD countries had complete broadband coverage, fixed or wireless.
Education has transformed over the last 20 years from being a means to an end to becoming a change agent on the battleground to improve the life chances of all individuals, regardless of where they live, their economic status, gender, ability or religious persuasion. Education has been revitalised as the gateway for equal opportunity.
Ce rapport explore les perspectives de croissance de l'économie de la mer, sa capacité à créer de l'emploi dans le futur et son rôle dans la gestion des défis mondiaux. Une attention particulière est accordée aux industries émergentes liées à la mer compte tenu de leur potentiel de croissance et d'innovation, et de leur contribution à résoudre les questions de sécurité énergétique, d'environnement, du changement climatique et de la sécurité alimentaire.
Le rapport examine les risques et les incertitudes concernant le développement futur des industries liées à la mer, les innovations requises en science et technologie pour soutenir leur progression, leur contribution potentielle à la croissance verte et certaines implications pour la gestion des océans. Enfin, en examinant l'économie de la mer dans son ensemble, la publication explore les possibilités d'action susceptibles de stimuler les perspectives de développement à long terme, tout en gérant l'utilisation de la mer de manière responsable et durable.
L'adoption des technologies, matériaux et processus de pointe par les entreprises doit s'accélérer pour que les pays puissent pleinement en concrétiser le potentiel en termes de gains de productivité. Telle est la conclusion d'un nouveau rapport de l'OCDE.
In 1964 the writer Isaac Asimov predicted life 50 years on: “Even so, mankind will suffer badly from the disease of boredom....and I dare say that psychiatry will be far and away the most important medical specialty in 2014. The lucky few who can be involved in creative work of any sort will be the true elite of mankind, for they alone will do more than serve a machine”.
Costa Rica’s successful economic performance and social achievements realised over the last three decades are widely acknowledged. GDP per capita has steadily increased at higher rates than in most Latin American countries as the economy has evolved along its development path from a rural and agriculture-based to a more diversified economy integrated in global value chains. But Costa Rica faces challenges and must enhance and broaden the basis for productivity growth by strengthening its innovation system and enhancing the role of science, technology and innovation in addressing its national development goals.
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We cover a vast range of topics, developing evidence-based policy advice on the contribution of science, technology and innovation to economies and societies. From business dynamics and productivity to GVCs and the evolution of the digital economy, and from innovation for social challenges to alleviating excess capacity in heavy industries, we seek to provide new insights for policymakers. We also "go national" with in-depth reviews.
The safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials is an important concern impacting regulatory bodies throughout the world. Due to their size, Manufactured Nanomaterials may require additional testing beyond the standard suite of tests used for other chemicals, to ensure that the impact on human health and the environment is fully understood - download Manufactured Nanomaterials Dossiers or search for Tested Endpoints.
Recent years have witnessed a constant rise in the spread of ICT (information and communication technologies) infrastructure and a growing demand for ICT goods. The production of these goods is knowledge intensive and the industry relies extensively on intellectual property (IP) rights. This strong and growing demand for ICT goods, and their IP dependence, makes them an attractive target for counterfeiters. This study looks at the trade in counterfeit ICT goods, including the size of the trade, the main sources of fake goods, and the countries whose companies are most affected.