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Entry to medical education in Ireland can occur in two ways: students can access it directly from secondary school (in which case it takes them 5 to 6 years to complete the programme) or after receiving a first bachelor degree (in which case the programme can be completed in 4 years).
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The Ministry of Health is responsible for post-graduate medical training and determining the number of positions available. Once registered with the Physicians Association, application for post-graduate training is possible. The funding for post-graduate training comes from the National Health Service budget.
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In Australia, there are two main categories for nurses: Enrolled Nurses (EN) (who, after an additional 6 months of studies, can become Endorsed Enrolled Nurses (EEN)) and Registered Nurses (RN). Graduates from RN programmes can pursue further education and training to become Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRN) or Nurse Practitioners (NP).
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To become a doctor in Canada, a student can therefore expect 9 to 13 years of university education and post-graduate training, depending on the area of specialisation.
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Entry to medical education in Italy follows the completion of high-school education and the grades obtained in a national exam, and it is subject to a numerus clausus (i.e., annual quota) set by the Ministry of Education, University and Research. It takes about six years for students to complete the first medical degree.
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In Canada, there are three main categories for nurses: Licenced Practice Nurses (LPNs), Registered Nurses (RNs) and Registered Psychiatric Nurses (RPNs). In addition, registered nurses can pursue further education to become Clinical Nurse Specialists and/or Nurse Practitioners.
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In Germany, there are two main categories of nurses, first level and second level. A majority of first level nurses are trained through a 3-year vocational training programme involving hospital-based training, and these nurses can go on to pursue further education and training to specialise within the hospital setting.
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To become a doctor in the UK, on average, a student can expect between 10 to 15 years of university education and post-graduate training.
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In France, there is only one main category of nurses. Following the 2009 reform, nursing education has moved from vocational programmes to higher education (university) programmes, with a requirement for nurses to obtain a Bachelor degree to align these educational requirements with other European countries.
OECD governments have to decide whether they want to cover more services at a limited reimbursement rate, or whether they want to extend more the financial protection for a limited number of services.