Export restrictions on raw materials are applied to achieve a number of policy objectives. However, they can have a significant and negative impact on the efficient allocation of resources, international trade, and the competitiveness and development of industries in both exporting and importing countries.
By diverting exports to domestic markets, export restrictions raise prices for foreign consumers and importers. At the same time, by reducing domestic prices in the applying countries and increasing global uncertainty concerning future prices, export restrictions negatively affect investment, thus potentially reducing the overall supply of raw materials in the long term. In view of existing alternative policy tools that have a different impact on trade, the effectiveness of export restrictions to achieve stated policy objectives should be carefully reviewed.
This publication presents a selection of papers discussed at the OECD Workshop on Raw Materials, held in Paris in October 2009. This workshop was organised in response to the growing concern on the use of export restrictions on raw materials, particularly by emerging economies.
In February 2009 the Russian Federation formally applied to the OECD Secretary-General to accede to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention and become a full participant in Working Group on Bribery. Consideration of that request will be undertaken by the Working Group following receipt of information from the Russian Federation.
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One of the major challenges faced by transitional economies has been to adjust institutions that were designed to function in a planning environment to function in an increasingly market-oriented environment. One of the most important of these institutional reforms has been the restructuring of the budget system. The latter should be interpreted quite widely to encompass the institutional framework as well as the administrative
En dépit des progrès accomplis ces dernières années, certains des principaux objectifs environnementaux des pays de l’OCDE ne sont pas en voie d’être atteints. Ces difficultés s’expliquent notamment par un respect insuffisant des obligations réglementaires.
This book analyses key elements of the trade performance of the BRIICS in relation to the rest of the world, focusing on trade and other policies influencing that performance. Developments in global trade policy are reviewed, notably the impact of preferential trade agreements on the multilateral system and patterns of world trade are described using both indices that reveal networks of trading relations and more standard modeling results.
As well as the global analysis, the book also presents a separate chapter for each of the BRIICS, examining the key development and trade issues in each of the six countries over the past few years.
Les pays de l’OCDE dominent encore l’économie mondiale, mais leur poids dans les échanges mondiaux est en déclin et certaines des plus importantes économies du monde ne sont pas membres de l’OCDE.
Les années 2006-08 ont été marquées par une hausse significative des prix mondiaux de la plupart des produits agricoles, mais pas de tous cependant.
En 2007, les flux d’investissements internationaux de la Russie ont atteint des niveaux record qui font de ce pays l’un des principaux destinataires et émetteurs d’IDE dans le monde. La Russie pourrait accroître sa capacité d’attirer les investissements internationaux en renforçant la concurrence bénéfique et en ouvrant de nouvelles perspectives d’investissement. L’adoption par les entreprises russes de pratiques commerciales
This is the Japanese version of Regulatory Reform in Russia and covers the overall economic context, the government’s capacity to manage regulatory reform, competition policy and enforcement, and market openness. It also examines the electricity and railroad sectors.
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The Russian system of education has been developing as the result of social, cultural, and economic changes of the early 90-s. But at present we can see that the significance of the particular factors of transformation that is specific to Russia is declining as tendencies common to the majority of modern countries are coming to the forefront. While choosing strategic parameters for the development of the educational system it is