English, PDF, 691kb
The ability to measure innovation is essential to an improvement strategy in education. This country note analyses how the practices are changing within classrooms and educational organisations and how teachers develop and use their pedagogical resources.
Russia holds among the world’s largest resources of gas, oil and coal. Its liquids production has reached historical highs, yet major additional upstream investments and technology upgrades will be needed to sustain these levels in the long term. Since the IEA’s last review of Russia’s energy policies in 2002, the power sector has also liberalised considerably. However, the Russian economy remains largely inefficient, with twice as much energy used per GDP compared with IEA member countries. Ambitious energy efficiency policies have been introduced but have not led to significant improvements so far. At the same time, the electricity and district heating infrastructure is ageing and requires rapid investments. Russia’s overall energy sector would benefit considerably from a more competitive, market-oriented environment.
While a number of policies aimed at modernising the energy sector and increasing its efficiency and sustainability are being developed or implemented, further reforms are needed. This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing Russia and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements.
English, PDF, 151kb
A two-page OECD summary and analysis of the Services Trade Restrictiveness Index results for The Russian Federation.
NPD in Russian Federation
The report provides an update of some of the developments in environmental expenditure and finance in the Russian Federation.
Suite à une réunion de son Conseil de gouvernance le 12 Mars 2014, l'OCDE a reporté les activités liées au processus d'adhésion de la Fédération de Russie à l'OCDE pour le moment.
Russia has demonstrated good resilience during the financial and economic crisis, though the speed of convergence has been lower than in most BRIICS countries, and growth has slowed more recently.
Retail trade (volume) series are shown as seasonally adjusted indices. For most countries, the volume indices are compiled by national sources. For the remaining countries, the value figures have been deflated by OECD using an appropriate consumer price index. The series are updated continuously.
La forte croissance d’avant-crise, basée sur la hausse des prix du pétrole, n’est plus soutenable. Les réformes structurelles pour améliorer le climat des affaires, les infrastructures, les qualifications et l'innovation sont cruciales.
Although recently we have observed signs of a pick-up in employment and investment in some countries, there are no clear prospects yet for a strong global recovery and a return to the pre-2007 growth path.