This report analyses Philippine agricultural policy and offers a series of recommendations to improve the sector's performance, including its agricultural institutions and governance systems, and its ability to adapt to climate change. Agriculture provides 30% of total employment in the Philippines and represents 11% of its Gross Domestic Product. Despite the country’s recent overall economic success, improving agricultural performance has been difficult. In terms of agricultural productivity growth, the Philippines lags behind other Southeast Asian countries as a result of decades of underinvestment, policy distortions, and uncertainties linked to the implementation of agrarian reform and periodic extreme weather conditions. Agricultural land resources are also under pressure from frequent natural disasters, rising population and urbanisation, and the lack of secure property rights.
Morelos is one of the smallest states in Mexico, and close to Mexico City. It contains a number of economic and environmental assets in its territory, but has weak productivity levels. This review looks at how Morelos is seeking to boost its economy, particularly through inclusive growth policies such as enhancing human capital and promoting innovation. It also highlights areas of untapped potential for economic growth across rural areas and the tourism and environmental sectors, and offers suggestions for how Morelos could address governance challenges.
Sweden has long given priority to promoting both sustainable economic growth in its regions and equity among them. This report looks at the progress Sweden has made in its regional growth policy, multi-level governance system and rural policy. It also takes a more in-depth look at two topics of increasing importance: whether rural Sweden has been “left behind”, and issues of regional and municipal governance. The report suggests steps Sweden can take to address its regional and rural policy challenges. It also assesses to what degree Sweden has implemented the recommendations made in the 2010 OECD Territorial Review of Sweden.
This report examines how land is governed in France. It describes the laws, policies and practices that shape spatial and land-use planning in the country as a whole, and provides a detailed assessment of specific governance arrangements and practices in two metropolitan areas: Clermont-Ferrand, a mid-range urban agglomeration in south-central France; and Nantes Saint-Nazaire, the 6th largest urban agglomeration in the country, located in the north-west. These case studies highlight the trends and challenges faced in each region—such as the need to protect fragile environments from growing peri-urbanisation—and the unique approaches that have been adopted to manage land-use issues across a large number of communes. The report offers recommendations on how to strengthen the capacity and effectiveness of the spatial planning system in order to ensure that land is used in an effective and sustainable way.
Montréal dispose de nombreux atouts pouvant lui permettre de se positionner parmi les métropoles les plus dynamiques des pays de l’OCDE. La métropole québécoise bénéficie notamment d’une grande capacité d’attraction et de formation des talents et d’un écosystème d’innovation dense constitué d’acteurs variés tels que des grandes firmes industrielles, de nombreuses start-up dans des secteurs émergents et des universités de premier plan. Toutefois ce potentiel de la métropole québécoise ne s’est pas pleinement concrétisé en termes de création d’emploi et de richesse collective au cours des dernières années.
Ce rapport examine ce paradoxe et propose des pistes d’action pour rendre l’économie montréalaise plus dynamique, innovante, inclusive, et génératrice de plus d’emplois et de meilleure qualité. Il met en évidence l’importance d’une meilleure utilisation des talents et des compétences, en encourageant l’innovation et la croissance des PME, et en adaptant mieux la formation et la recherche aux besoins des individus et des acteurs économiques montréalais. Seule une stratégie globale, intégrée et activement poursuivie par l’ensemble des partenaires du territoire pourra permettre à Montréal de jouer véritablement son rôle de moteur du développement économique et social.
The water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector in Moldova is not financially sustainable: tariffs do not typically cover operational costs and capital investments are heavily funded by external development partners. This report analyses several options for streamlining and strengthening domestic financial support mechanisms (DFSMs) in terms of both supply and demand, discusses different scenarios and recommends a number of actions to ensure effective DFSM implementation, notably: 1) sufficient investment for the implementation of targets and obligations set in the national strategies, the Association Agreement with the EU, as well as Moldova’s international commitments (water-related Sustainable Development Goals, and the “Water-to-all” commitment); 2) the financial sustainability of operators; and 3) the affordability of WSS services for end-users, especially low-income segments of the population.
The northern sparsely populated areas (NSPA) of Finland, Norway and Sweden are becoming increasingly important to the geopolitical and economic interests of these countries and the European Union. These regions have unique geographical characteristics - low population density and a harsh climate - and face specific challenges due to an ageing population, long distances from markets, and high-cost land transport. However, high productivity growth is possible in low-density regions. This report sets out policy recommendations at cross-border, national and regional scales to enhance prosperity and well-being across the NSPA. This includes closer co-operation with national governments to address shared challenges and opportunities such as improving east-west transport connections and reducing occupational and skills barriers to labour mobility, and addressing barriers to business growth such as access to finance.
The ITF Transport Outlook provides an overview of recent trends and near-term prospects for the transport sector at a global level, as well as long-term prospects for transport demand to 2050, for freight (maritime, air and surface), passenger transport (car, rail and air) and CO2 emissions. This edition looks at how the main policy, economic and technological changes since 2015, along with other international developments (such as the Sustainable Development Goals), are shaping the future of mobility, and presents alternative policy scenarios for long-term trends in transport demand and CO2 emissions from all transport modes, freight and passenger. A special focus on accessibility in cities also highlights the role of policies in shaping sustainable transport systems that provide equal access to all.
This report is the third and final output of a ten-year international research project studying the costs and viability of long-life road pavement surfacings. It describes the results of tests conducted with epoxy asphalt and high performance cementitious materials (HPCM) on real road sections in France, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The project was initiated to address a growing problem for road administrations and road users: frequent closures of roadways for repairs and repaving as a result of surface pavements that have improved but still barely kept up with increased loads and traffic density.
The Flemish economy is extremely diversified with a number of value-added industries and a highly skilled workforce. The shift to a green economy will however require specific knowledge, values and attitudes from the Flemish workforce. This report analyses the skills dimension of the transition to a green economy at the local level, with specific reference to emerging needs in the agro-food, construction and chemicals sectors. It also provides recommendations for the development of green skills and occupational profiles at the organisational level, while advising policy makers on the best method of assisting firms to transition to a green economy.