Publications


  • 11-December-2015

    English

    OECD Reviews of School Resources: Flemish Community of Belgium 2015

    The effective use of school resources is a policy priority across OECD countries. The OECD Reviews of School Resources explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education.
    The series considers four types of resources: financial resources, such as public funding of individual schools; human resources, such as teachers, school leaders and education administrators; physical resources, such as location, buildings and equipment; and other resources such as learning time.
    This series offers timely policy advice to both governments and the education community. It includes both country reports and thematic studies.
  • 11-December-2015

    English

    A Review of International Large-Scale Assessments in Education - Assessing Component Skills and Collecting Contextual Data

    The OECD has initiated PISA for Development (PISA-D) in response to the rising need of developing countries to collect data about their education systems and the capacity of their student bodies. This report aims to compare and contrast approaches regarding the instruments that are used to collect data on (a) component skills and cognitive instruments, (b) contextual frameworks, and (c) the implementation of the different international assessments, as well as approaches to include children who are not at school, and the ways in which data are used. It then seeks to identify assessment practices in these three areas that will be useful for developing countries. This report reviews the major international and regional large-scale educational assessments: large-scale international surveys, school-based surveys and household-based surveys. For each of the issues discussed, there is a description of the prevailing international situation, followed by a consideration of the issue for developing countries and then a description of the relevance of the issue to PISA for Development.
  • 11-December-2015

    English

    Energy Investments and Technology Transfer Across Emerging Economies: The Case of Brazil and China

    Growing innovation capacity among emerging markets and increasing investment flows between them are creating new, reciprocal opportunities through the deployment of technological innovations and knowledge transfer. The case of Brazil and China is particularly relevant in this context. Between 2005 and 2012, the Brazilian energy sector absorbed USD 18.3 billion worth of investments from China. Sino-Brazilian trade and political relations have intensified over the past decade.This report focuses on three main questions: What are the drivers behind Chinese investment in the Brazilian energy sector? What potential exists for inter-firm technology transfer between the Chinese and Brazilian companies involved? Do government-sponsored activities and academic exchanges complement inter-firm technology transfer? The analysis highlights the potential of energy technology co-operation between Brazil and China, the deployment of innovations in third countries and, more generally, the intensification of global co-operation in
  • 11-December-2015

    English

    Gas Pricing: China's Challenges and IEA Experience

    China will play a positive role in the global development of gas, the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) Executive Director, Maria Van der Hoeven has said in Beijing on 11 September, 2012 when launching a new IEA report: Gas Pricing and Regulation, China’s challenges and IEA experiences.In line with its aim to meet growing energy demand while shifting away from coal, China has set an ambitious goal of doubling its use of natural gas from 2011 levels by 2015. Prospects are good for significant new supplies – both domestic and imported, conventional and unconventional – to come online in the medium-term, but notable challenges remain, particularly concerning gas pricing and the institutional and regulatory landscape.
     
    While China’s circumstances are, in many respects unique, some current issues are similar to those a number of IEA countries have faced. This report highlights some key challenges China faces in its transition to greater reliance on natural gas, then explores in detail relevant experiences from IEA countries, particularly in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States as well as the European Union (EU). Preliminary suggestions about how lessons learned in other countries could be applied to China’s situation are offered as well.
     
    The aim of this report is to provide stakeholders in China with a useful reference as they consider decisions about the evolution of the gas sector in their country.
     
    The report is funded by the UK Strategic Programme Fund programme , and the EU delegation in Beijing and the World Bank have provided in-kind contributions. The project is supported by the Chinese government and co-implemented by China 5E.
     
  • 11-December-2015

    English

    Development Prospects of the ASEAN Power Sector - Towards an Integrated Electricity Market

    A regional ASEAN Power Grid (APG) would help ASEAN countries meet their rising energy demands, improve access to energy services and reduce the costs of developing an energy infrastructure. Two primary advantages of system integration are the increase in security of supply and efficiency. Larger service territories allow for the pooling of generating resources, thus taking advantage of the benefits of generation diversity.Establishing electricity security regulations, co-ordinated planning, allocating the cost of transmission development, revising network codes and system monitoring is crucial for a functioning market. ASEAN member countries hence should work closely together to set common long-term goals for a regional market. The medium-term target should be harmonisation of grid codes and reliability standards. To ensure this, an independent regional regulator should be established and given a mandate to look after the common benefits and interests of the ASEAN member countries.
  • 11-December-2015

    English

    Update on Overseas Investments by China's National Oil Companies - Achievements and Challenges since 2011

    Chinese NOCs first ventured overseas to invest in oil and gas production more than 20 years ago. Today, they have emerged to become international players with activities spreading across more than 40 countries and producing 2.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (mboe/d) of oil and gas outside of China. Chinese companies have contributed much-needed investments in global oil and gas production.This report provides an update on overseas activity by China’s National Oil Companies (NOCs) between 2011 and 2013 and is a follow-up publication of IEA’s previous report in 2011, Overseas Investments by Chinese National Oil Companies: Assessing the Drivers and Impacts. It aims to examine the trends exhibited by investments made by Chinese NOCs and the risks and challenges they face today and raised the question if China’s long standing non-interference foreign policy could still be valid given China’s worldwide commercial interests, including those of the NOCs’.
  • 11-December-2015

    English

    The Future of Productivity

    This book addresses the rising productivity gap between the global frontier and other firms, and identifies a number of structural impediments constraining business start-ups, knowledge diffusion and resource allocation (such as barriers to up-scaling and relatively high rates of skill mismatch).Analysis based on micro and industry-level data highlights the importance of reallocation-friendly policies, including well-functioning product, labour and risk capital markets, efficient judicial systems, bankruptcy laws that do not excessively penalise failure, housing policies that do not unduly restrict labour mobility, and improvements in public funding and organisation of basic research which do not excessively favour applied vs basic research and incumbents vs young firms.
  • 11-December-2015

    English

    Emissions Reduction through Upgrade of Coal-Fired Power Plants: Learning from Chinese Experience

    Coal is the principal fuel for the generation of electrical power globally. It is the leading source of power generation in OECD countries and the dominant fuel source behind economic growth in non-OECD countries. However, while providing over 40% of the world’s electricity, it is responsible for more than 70% of the CO2 arising from electricity generation.The IEA carried out a project to examine the potential to improve the performance of existing coal-fired plants. Two power units in China were selected to showcase measures that would improve their net efficiency. The results built on the efficiency gains made under China’s national energy efficiency improvement programme and demonstrated the enormous potential to improve performance, with each percentage point increase capable of reducing CO2 emissions by many millions of tonnes over a unit’s operational lifetime. Experiences learned in China can be applied to improving coal-fired power plant efficiency worldwide.
  • 11-December-2015

    English

    Developing a Natural Gas Trading Hub in Asia

    The trading of natural gas in the Asia-Pacific region is dominated by long-term contracts in which the price of gas is indexed to that of oil. As the price of gas between Asia and other parts of the world has widened in recent years, observers have raised serious doubts about the sustainability of this pricing model. In this report, the IEA shows what it would take to create a functional, regional natural-gas trading hub in which prices reflect the local supply and demand fundamentals.
     
    The report aims to provide stakeholders with insights on the changes that are required in the Asia-Pacific natural gas sector -- both downstream and upstream -- to allow a competitive natural gas price to emerge. Building on OECD Europe and OECD America experiences, this report sets out to assess perspectives for these changes in the Asia-Pacific natural gas markets. It identifies obstacles and opportunities for a competitive natural gas price in the Asian economies to emerge.

     
  • 11-December-2015

    English

    Understanding Energy Challenges in India - Policies, Players and Issues

    A combination of rapidly increasing energy demand and fuel imports plus growing concern about economic and environmental consequences is generating growing calls for effective and thorough energy governance in India. Numerous policy reforms over the past 20 years have shifted the country’s energy sector from a state-dominated system towards one that is based on market principles. However, with the reform process left unfinished, India now finds itself trapped halfway along the transition to an open and well-performing energy sector.India suffered from the largest power outage ever in late July 2012, affecting nearly half of the population. While this incident highlights the importance of modern and smart energy systems, it indicates that the country is increasingly unable to deliver a secure supply of energy to its population, a quarter of which still lacks access to electricity.
     
    Understanding Energy Challenges in India aims to provide an informative and holistic understanding of India’s energy sector to stakeholders in India as well as the broad public.The publication explores in detail the policies, players and issues of the country’s power, coal, oil and gas, renewables and nuclear sectors. It also highlights the key challenges India faces, challenges that must be resolved for the evolution of the fast-growing country’s energy sector towards a sustainable energy future and eventually critical for the prospects of the Indian and global economies.
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