People today are living longer than ever before, while birth rates are dropping in the majority of OECD countries. Such demographics raise the question: are current public social expenditures adequate and sustainable? Older workers play a crucial role in the labour market. Now that legal retirement ages are rising, fewer older workers are retiring early, but at the same time those older workers who have lost their job after the age of 50 have tended to remain in long term unemployment. What can countries do to help? How can they give older people better work incentives and opportunities? These reports offer analysis and assessment on what the best policies are for fostering employability, job mobility and labour demand at an older age.
Ce rapport examine les politiques agricoles de la Suisse et fait des recommandations concernant le rôle des réglementations, la réduction des obstacles aux échanges et des subventions à l’exportation, et la réduction des paiements directs aux exploitants agricoles. Le rapport recommande également d’augmenter les incitations à la production de produits de grande qualité à des prix compétitifs, de mettre en place des politiques différentes selon les régions, et de tenir compte de la durabilité de l’utilisation des ressources et du bien-être des animaux.
This report delivers evidence-based and practical recommendations on how to better support employment and economic development in Flanders, Belgium. It builds on sub-national data analysis and consultations with local stakeholders in two case study areas (Antwerp and Limburg). It provides a comparative framework to understand the role of the local level in contributing to more and better quality jobs. The report can help national, regional, and local policy makers in Belgium build effective and sustainable partnerships at the local level, which join-up efforts and achieve stronger outcomes across employment, training, and economic development policies. Co-ordinated policies can help workers find suitable jobs, while also stimulating entrepreneurship and productivity, which increases the quality of life and prosperity within a community as well as throughout the country.
In recent years, Colombia has made major economic and social advances. Despite this recent progress, Colombia faces significant structural challenges associated with the concentration of economic activity – particularly exports - in a few sectors, low levels of productivity, and high inequality. Embarking on a path towards inclusive growth is vital in the context of successfully eradicating poverty, providing opportunities for its growing middle class and solidifying progress towards lasting peace. The road ahead to high-income status will be demanding and calls for major policy initiatives in areas such as education, innovation, infrastructure and rural development, as embodied in the New Development Plan 2014-2018: Everyone for a new country. Furthermore, the country needs to work towards bolstering government capacities, building strong institutions, and effectively mobilising domestic revenues to facilitate effective implementation of its public policy priorities.
This report provides an analysis of the impact of a range of corrupt practices on economic growth and development in four key sectors: utilities and infrastructure, extractive industries, health and education. As quantification of the impact of corruption on economic growth at a macro level remains challenging, this report presents evidence at the micro and sectoral level to capture the various consquences of this phenomenon. Prepared by the OECD as a contribution to the G20 efforts to fight corruption, this report aims at increasing the understanding of the channels by which corruption inhibits economic growth and assist countries in further integrating anticorruption in their efforts to foster inclusive, sustainable growth and development. Drawing lessons from the cross-cutting analysis, the report encourages countries to design comprehensive anti-corruption strategies for which progress could be measurable and which would be tailored to specific country circumstances and economies to achieve the best results for economic growth and value-for-money.
Having made impressive progress in widening access to basic education, Indonesia must now consolidate these gains and develop an education system that will support better the needs of a rapidly emerging economy in its transition towards high-income status. This report provides guidance on how Indonesia can rise to this challenge. It highlights three main policy directions which, pursued together, would help Indonesia advance on the path towards stronger growth and more inclusive and sustainable development. The first priority is to raise the quality of education and ensure that all learners acquire the skills they need to succeed in life and work. The second goal is to widen participation, requiring a concerted effort to improve access for disadvantaged groups and expand provision beyond the basic level. The final challenge is to increase efficiency, with a more data-driven approach to resource allocation, better tailoring of provision to local needs, and stronger performance management.
This publication examines public governance arrangements in Finland and Estonia in two key areas: whole-of-government strategy steering and digital governance. This integrated review reflects the fact that the two countries face common challenges in setting and co-ordinating the implementation of whole-of-government strategies.
L’efficacité d’un système d’éducation tient à sa capacité de promouvoir le leadership à tous les paliers,
encourageant ainsi les enseignants autant que les membres de la direction, peu importe leur poste officiel,
à prendre les rênes de l’innovation dans la classe, dans l’école et dans l’ensemble du système. Ce rapport
résume les éléments de l’Enquête internationale sur l’enseignement et l’apprentissage et du Programme
international pour le suivi des acquis des élèves (PISA) de l’OCDE, qui sous-tendent les trois thèmes
du Sommet international sur la profession enseignante de 2015 : la direction des établissements,
le sentiment d’efficacité chez les enseignants et l’innovation en éducation. Il donne par ailleurs en exemple
des méthodes d’enseignement et d’apprentissage novatrices mises en oeuvre par diverses écoles
d’un peu partout dans le monde afin d’aider leurs élèves à acquérir les compétences dont ils ont besoin
pour participer pleinement à l’économie mondialisée du xxie siècle
This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Uruguay.
The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.
The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention.
The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. “Fishing expeditions” are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.
All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction’s legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined – Phase 1 plus Phase 2 – reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.