The effective use of school resources is a policy priority across OECD countries. The OECD Reviews of School Resources explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education.
The series considers four types of resources: financial resources, such as public funding of individual schools; human resources, such as teachers, school leaders, education administrators; physical resources, such as location, buildings and equipment, and other resources such as learning time.
This series will offer timely policy advice to both governments and the education community. It will include both country reports and thematic studies.
Given the ageing challenges, there is an increasing pressure in OECD countries to promote longer working lives. This report provides an overview of policy initiatives implemented in Denmark over the past decade. Even if these recent reforms are well in line with the recommendations of the 2005 OECD report Ageing and Employment Policies: Denmark, the focus has been put mainly on the supply side. The aim of this new report is to identify what more could be done to promote longer working lives. As a first step, the government should assess closely the implementation process to ensure that the expected outcomes of the reforms are achieved. More broadly, the strategy should act simultaneously in three areas by: i) strengthening incentives to carry on working; ii) tackling employment barriers on the side of employers; and iii) improving the employability of older workers.
L'Étude économique de l'OCDE pour la Lettonie 2015 examine les récents développements économiques, politiques, et les perspectives et jette un regard plus détaillé sur améliorer l'efficacité du secteur public et augmenter la productivité.
This publication examines the major policy challenges, achievements and next steps for the creation of a more entrepreneurial population and a stronger SME sector in the Russian Federation, which are critical to the country’s economic growth and diversification. Despite less regulatory burdens and more subsidy financing for start-ups, production modernisation, innovation and exporting, framework conditions need to be improved in areas such as the rule of law, commercialising science and improving entrepreneurial skills and education. Gaps in SME and entrepreneurship programmes also need to be filled, such as through new initiatives for high-growth firms and large firm-SME linkages. Strengthening business development services infrastructure and improving access to finance are further important challenges. All these improvements will need to be spread across the regions of the Russian Federation if national objectives for growth and balanced spatial development are to be met.
This review finds that while Mexico has taken important steps in addressing the urban challenges in the Valle de México, Mexico’s largest metropolitan area, there is a need for major metropolitan governance reform. Serious urban governance failings are inhibiting adequate responses to critical urban development priorities - regeneration, access to adequate housing, reliable and safe public transport, and environmental protection. Several measures are currently being implemented. However, these tools and reforms will not produce the desired solutions to urban problems in the absence of metropolitan thinking, strategic regional planning, and improved co-ordination and collaboration across levels of government.
The IRTAD Road Safety Annual Report 2015 provides an overview for road safety performance for 2013 in 38 countries, with preliminary data for 2014, and detailed reports for each country. It includes tables with cross country comparisons on key safety indicators.
The report outlines the most recent safety data in IRTAD countries, including detailed analysis by road user, age group and type of road. It describes the crash data collection process in IRTAD countries, the road safety strategies and targets in place and information on recent trends in speeding, drink-driving and other aspects of road user behaviour.
Peru has experienced significant improvements in growth, well-being and poverty reduction since the introduction of macroeconomic reforms, economic openness and more effective social programmes in the 1990s. However, the country still faces structural challenges to escape the middle-income trap and consolidate its emerging middle class. This report reviews the main bottlenecks to boost inclusive development and well-being in Peru. These include education and skills, the labour market, innovation, transport infrastructure and logistics, governance and trust in institutions. These dimensions have considerable implications for levels of productivity, inequalities and labour informality in Peru.
Energy efficiency improvements over the last 25 years saved a cumulative USD 5.7 trillion in energy expenditures. This virtual supply of energy generates multiple benefits to governments, businesses and households, including greater energy security from reduced dependence on energy imports and billions of tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions reductions.
Strengthening our understanding of the energy efficiency market and the prospects over the medium term is becoming increasingly important. The 2015 Energy Efficiency Market Report (EEMR) evaluates the impact of energy efficiency in the energy system and assesses the scale and outlook for further energy efficiency investment using detailed country-by-country energy efficiency indicator data and IEA expertise.
This year’s report includes an in-depth look into the buildings energy efficiency market and the electricity sector. Energy efficiency investments in the buildings sector totaled between USD 80‑100 billion in 2014. In the electricity sector, energy efficiency has proved critical in flattening electricity consumption in Organisation for Economic Co‑operation and Development member countries, driving utilities to adapt their business models.
Promoting and expanding energy efficiency markets is a worldwide phenomenon, and EEMR 2015 presents a number of case studies at the national, state and municipal level. These include examinations of Latin America’s two largest economies, Brazil and Mexico, which are looking to efficiency to boost productivity and social development. Energy-producing countries like Saudi Arabia and the Russian Federation are also increasingly turning to efficiency to increase exports and reduce the costs of growing domestic energy consumption. In addition to national governments, major urban areas such as Tokyo, Seoul and Paris are increasingly enabling energy efficiency investment.
The European Union’s Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine) struggle with environmental challenges related to the consumption and end-of-life management of many harmful products. This policy manual considers the potential use and implementation of four categories of product-related economic instruments to address some of these challenges: product taxes, tax differentiation based on environmental factors, deposit-refund systems and extended producer responsibility (EPR).
Today, the generation and use of huge volumes of data are redefining our “intelligence” capacity and our social and economic landscapes, spurring new industries, processes and products, and creating significant competitive advantages. In this sense, data-driven innovation (DDI) has become a key pillar of 21st-century growth, with the potential to significantly enhance productivity, resource efficiency, economic competitiveness, and social well-being.
Greater access to and use of data create a wide array of impacts and policy challenges, ranging from privacy and consumer protection to open access issues and measurement concerns, across public and private health, legal and science domains. This report aims to improve the evidence base on the role of DDI for promoting growth and well-being, and provide policy guidance on how to maximise the benefits of DDI and mitigate the associated economic and societal risks.