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Publications


  • 21-April-2020

    English

    Can blockchain technology reduce the cost of remittances?

    The achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) demands unprecedented resources and efforts. Remittances as one of the largest development finance flows are an important source of income for millions of households in developing countries and offer tremendous potential to contribute towards the achievement of Agenda 2030. However, the high cost of sending remittances limits their full potential. The global average cost of sending USD 200 is 6.9% of the remittance. SDG 10 C aims to reduce the cost to less than 3% and to eliminate remittance corridors with cost higher than 5% by 2030. Blockchain technology promises to disintermediate banks, transform the financial landscape and drastically reduce the cost of cross-border transactions, yet there is a need for further evidence on this topic. The OECD Development Co-operation Directorate (DCD) has developed this paper to provide an overview of diverse perspectives on the intersection of blockchain technology and remittances by exploring the opportunities and challenges of this technology for reducing the cost of remittances. The paper identifies several limitations, such as data privacy risks, regulatory uncertainty and last-mile delivery, among others, while investigating whether blockchain technology is the solution to reduce the cost of remittances.
  • 20-April-2020

    English

    Digitalisation challenges and opportunities for subnational governments

    The world economy and societies are going through a digital transformation that goes well beyond computerisation and use of information and telecommunications technologies. This transformation is creating opportunities and challenges for all levels of government in the areas of tax and expenditure policy and administration, service delivery and fiscal-financial management, and regulatory practices and policies. However, governments (especially sub-national ones, SNGs) often also face shortages of skills, equipment and physical infrastructure, while having to address emerging challenges in cyber security risk management and data protection. The digital transformation calls for cooperation among the different layers of administration in support of effective and efficient digitalisation of SNGs. This paper reviews and discusses these opportunities and challenges.
  • 20-April-2020

    English

    Common Ground Between the Paris Agreement and the Sendai Framework - Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction

    Countries are faced with the growing challenge of managing increasing risks from climate change and climate variability, putting development and the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals at risk. The adoption in 2015 of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and the Paris Agreement on climate change provides a clear mandate for increased coherence in countries’ approaches to climate and disaster risk reduction. Countries increasingly recognise the benefits of improved coherence between the two policy areas, exemplified by the number of countries that either have developed joint strategies or put in place processes that facilitate co-ordination. Informed by the country approaches of Ghana, Peru and the Philippines, in addition to a review of relevant literature, this report examines the potential for increased coherence in approaches to climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction across levels of government and sectors. It identifies ways in which government officials, development co-operation and other stakeholders can support efforts to further enhance coherence between the two policy areas, not only in the three case study countries, but also those in other countries as well as providers of development co-operation.
  • 16-April-2020

    English

    Rural Development Strategy Review of Ethiopia - Reaping the Benefits of Urbanisation

    Addressing rural development is key for Ethiopia’s growth process. A series of government-led structural reforms have contributed to sustained growth in the country over the last two decades as well as to considerable poverty reduction in rural areas. However, Ethiopia faces critical challenges it will need to overcome to meet the needs of a growing rural population. In practice, this will require updating the existing rural development strategy in order to better integrate the interaction of rural and urban areas. Policy approaches that account for the fast urbanisation process experienced in the country will therefore be key to improving the well-being of rural populations and promoting national growth. This report takes a spatial approach to study Ethiopia’s rural development strategies. It highlights the need to develop stronger and more functional linkages between rural and urban areas. As such, the development of intermediary cities and small urban centres provides large scope for inclusive rural transformation. The report is the result of rigorous analysis, and extensive consultations with national and international stakeholders. It identifies some of the key challenges faced by rural areas and provides a series of recommendations to enhance Ethiopia’s rural development strategies.
  • 15-April-2020

    English

    Housing policies for sustainable and inclusive cities - How national governments can deliver affordable housing and compact urban development

    In a context marked by rapid urbanisation, growing housing demand and the worsening impacts of climate change, national governments play a vital role in delivering environmentally sustainable cities with adequate and affordable housing. This paper reviews national housing policy instruments from around the world, analysing their impacts on compact urban development and housing affordability. First, the paper proposes a framework to better understand the housing market in cities by outlining drivers of housing supply and demand as well as the constitution of the housing market and its segments: homeowners and renters, single- and multi-family homes, market and below-market price segments. Next, the paper analyses a range of policy options available to national governments, which are summarised and evaluated according to their impacts on compactness and affordability. Last, the paper provides short-, medium- and long-term policy recommendations to align national housing policies with the goal of delivering more sustainable and inclusive cities. The paper is one of the first attempts to consider the intersection of physical urban form and housing affordability from a national policy perspective.
  • 15-avril-2020

    Français

    Vers une utilisation durable des terres - Aligner les politiques en matière de biodiversité, de climat et d’alimentation

    L’utilisation des terres occupe une place centrale dans bon nombre des défis environnementaux et socioéconomiques d’aujourd’hui. Ce rapport examine les problèmes actuels devant être surmontés pour mettre la politique foncière en phase avec les objectifs en matière de climat, de biodiversité et d’alimentation, ainsi que les possibilités de rendre les systèmes d’utilisation des terres plus durables. Six pays sont étudiés : Brésil, France, Indonésie, Irlande, Mexique et Nouvelle-Zélande. Tous se caractérisent par un secteur agricole et forestier relativement important et des émissions de gaz à effet de serre correspondantes élevées. La plupart de ces pays abritent également une biodiversité d’importance mondiale. À partir de l’analyse des stratégies et plans nationaux, ainsi que des instruments d’action et de coordination institutionnelle mis en place par ces pays, le rapport fournit des indications sur les bonnes pratiques permettant de mieux aligner les processus de décision en matière d’utilisation des terres et de rendre plus cohérents les objectifs concernant l’utilisation des terres, le climat, les écosystèmes et l’alimentation.
  • 14-April-2020

    English

    Synthesising good practices in fiscal federalism - Key recommendations from 15 years of country surveys

    The design of intergovernmental fiscal relations can help to ensure that tax and spending powers are assigned in a way to promote sustainable and inclusive economic growth. Decentralisation can enable sub-central governments to provide better public services for households and firms, while it can also make intergovernmental frameworks more complex, harming equity. The challenges of fiscal federalism are multi-faceted and involve difficult trade-offs. This synthesis paper consolidates much of the OECD’s work on fiscal federalism over the past 15 years, with a particular focus on OECD Economic Surveys. The paper identifies a range of good practices on the design of country policies and institutions related strengthening fiscal capacity delineating responsibilities across evels of government and improving intergovernmental co-ordination.
  • 10-April-2020

    English

    OECD Skills Strategy Slovak Republic - Assessment and Recommendations

    Skills are the key to shaping a better future and central to the capacity of countries and people to thrive in an increasingly interconnected and rapidly changing world. Megatrends such as globalisation, technological advances and demographic change are reshaping work and society, generating a growing demand for higher levels and new sets of skills. OECD Skills Strategy projects provide a strategic and comprehensive approach to assess countries’ skills challenges and opportunities and help them build more effective skills systems. The OECD works collaboratively with countries to develop policy responses that are tailored to each country’s specific skills needs. The foundation of this approach is the OECD Skills Strategy Framework, which allows for an exploration of what countries can do better to 1) develop relevant skills over the life course; 2) use skills effectively in work and in society; and 3) strengthen the governance of the skills system. This report, 'OECD Skills Strategy Slovak Republic: Assessment and Recommendations', identifies opportunities and makes recommendations to strengthen the skills of youth, reduce skills imbalances, foster greater participation in adult learning and strengthen the use of skills in the workplace.
  • 9-April-2020

    English

    Making Dispute Resolution More Effective – MAP Peer Review Report, Liechtenstein (Stage 2) - Inclusive Framework on BEPS: Action 14

    Under Action 14, countries have committed to implement a minimum standard to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the mutual agreement procedure (MAP). The MAP is included in Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention and commits countries to endeavour to resolve disputes related to the interpretation and application of tax treaties. The Action 14 Minimum Standard has been translated into specific terms of reference and a methodology for the peer review and monitoring process. The minimum standard is complemented by a set of best practices. The peer review process is conducted in two stages. Stage 1 assesses countries against the terms of reference of the minimum standard according to an agreed schedule of review. Stage 2 focuses on monitoring the follow-up of any recommendations resulting from jurisdictions' stage 1 peer review report. This report reflects the outcome of the stage 2 peer monitoring of the implementation of the Action 14 Minimum Standard by Liechtenstein, which is accompanied by a document addressing the implementation of best practices.
  • 9-April-2020

    English

    Making Dispute Resolution More Effective – MAP Peer Review Report, Germany (Stage 2) - Inclusive Framework on BEPS: Action 14

    Under Action 14, countries have committed to implement a minimum standard to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the mutual agreement procedure (MAP). The MAP is included in Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention and commits countries to endeavour to resolve disputes related to the interpretation and application of tax treaties. The Action 14 Minimum Standard has been translated into specific terms of reference and a methodology for the peer review and monitoring process. The peer review process is conducted in two stages. Stage 1 assesses countries against the terms of reference of the minimum standard according to an agreed schedule of review. Stage 2 focuses on monitoring the follow-up of any recommendations resulting from jurisdictions' stage 1 peer review report. This report reflects the outcome of the stage 2 peer monitoring of the implementation of the Action 14 Minimum Standard by Germany.
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