Partager

Publications


  • 18-December-2020

    English

    Making Thailand’s services sector more competitive through international trade

    Services are an important part of global economic activity and of international trade. Nevertheless, compared to its very large tourism sector, the sector of high-end business services in Thailand remains small. As IT and information, and professional services are traded indirectly through value chains and are now crucial elements of manufacturing, strengthening these services would benefit Thailand in its post-COVID-19 participation of global value chains, enhancing the competitiveness of its manufacturers. This paper analyses how Thailand can seize the opportunity of growing international trade in services. It points out that liberalising services sector markets would strengthen the competitiveness of the services sectors and boost productivity not only in the sectors, but also in manufacturing sectors that rely on these services as input. In this regard, Thailand can benefit more from service-oriented Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). Moreover, eliminating FDI restrictions would not only be crucial to spur employment and exports, but also benefit consumers. The paper identifies that, to maximise the benefits of services trade integration, Thailand needs to step up policies to re- and up-skill workers and make the labour market more flexible.
  • 18-December-2020

    English

    Why are some U.S. cities successful, while others are not? Empirical evidence from machine learning

    The U.S. population has become increasingly concentrated in large metropolitan areas. However, there are striking differences in between the performances of big cities: some of them have been very successful and have been able to pull away from the rest, while others have stagnated or even declined. The main objective of this paper is to characterize U.S. metropolitan areas according to their labor-market performance: which metropolitan areas are struggling and falling behind? Which ones are flourishing? Which ones are staying resilient by adapting to shocks? We rely on an unsupervised machine learning technique called Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering (HAC) to conduct this empirical investigation. The data comes from a number of sources including the new Job-to-Job (J2J) flows dataset from the Census Bureau, which reports the near universe of job movements in and out of employment at the metropolitan level. We characterize the fate of metropolitan areas by tracking their job mobility rate, unemployment rate, income growth, population increase, net change in job-to-job mobility and GDP growth. Our results indicate that the 372 metropolitan areas under examination can be categorized into four statistically distinct groups: booming areas (67), prosperous mega metropolitan areas (99), resilient areas (149) and distressed metropolitan areas (57). The results show that areas that are doing well are predominantly located in the south and the west. The main features of their success have revolved around embracing digital technologies, adopting local regulations friendly to job mobility and business creation, avoiding strict rules on land-use and housing market, and improving the wellbeing of the city’s population. These results highlight that cities adopting well-targeted policies can accelerate the return to growth after a shock.
  • 18-December-2020

    English

    Raising the Basic Skills of Workers in England, United Kingdom

    This report provides examples and recommendations to help overcome obstacles to engage low-skilled workers and their employers in skills development. England has implemented impressive measures aimed at helping workers and employers to upskill. Nonetheless, there remains room for improvement. More can be done to identify workers with low basic skills, raise awareness of why improving those skills is important, increase the accessibility to relevant courses, ensure these courses are flexible enough to accommodate adult learners who are already employed, and finally make the provision relevant to career aspirations. This report urges England to establish and promote a vision for raising the skills of low-skilled workers, identify their needs more systematically, and provide targeted guidance and information to them and their employers. It highlights that accessible and flexible adult learning opportunities in the workplace, home, community and by other means such as online and distance learning can better meet the varied needs of low-skilled workers. It also makes the case for the use of contextualised learning approaches, which create connections between basic skills and vocational context, and a more effective use of basic skills in workplaces to maintain, develop and realise the benefits of prior skills investments.
  • 18-December-2020

    English

    Indonesia’s perspective on Total Official Support for Sustainable Development (TOSSD)

    This Working Paper presents the perspective of Indonesia on the concept of total official support for sustainable development (TOSSD), the extent of TOSSD resources provided by Indonesia and the capacity of the government to report on these resources. Indonesia broadly supported TOSSD as a relevant measure for monitoring SDG implementation and proposed some adjustments to the TOSSD methodology. Estimates for TOSSD provided by Indonesia in 2017 amount to USD 6 376 million, with USD 16 million for Pillar I (cross-border flows to other developing countries) and USD 6 360 million for Pillar II (contributions to international public goods). For Indonesia, activities recorded in TOSSD should not only be assessed in financial terms, but also in terms of their sustainable development impact. This pilot study attests to Indonesia’s strong capacity to report on TOSSD Pillar I, but finds that tracking could be improved for a wider range of resources. The country also has the capacity to report on Pillar II.
  • 18-December-2020

    English

    Addressing the COVID-19 and climate crises - Potential economic recovery pathways and their implications for climate change mitigation, NDCs and broader socio-economic goals

    This paper provides decision-makers with a framework for prioritising different economic, social and environmental goals and analysing the options available to achieve them. To this end, it develops three stylised COVID-19 recovery pathways ('Rebound', 'Decoupling' and 'Wider well-being') that differ in the extent to which they encompass greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions and the integration of mitigation and wider well-being outcomes or, broadly equivalently, SDGs. A number of real-world examples of COVID-19 recovery measures in the surface transport and residential sectors were identified, and the paper maps these measures onto these three stylised pathways. The paper finds a wide divergence in the environmental and social impacts of COVID-19 recovery measures developed to date, with several countries putting in place measures that correspond to all three pathways. The nature and pace of economic recovery in different countries and in aggregate will have important implications for existing, updated and new Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement, and the paper also highlights the possible impact of the COVID-19 recovery measures being put in place on NDCs– including on the ambition of both current and future NDCs. The paper concludes that it will be important for governments to improve their understanding of the impact of their recovery measures across multiple policy dimensions (economic, social, environmental) as well as across different time periods (short and long-term) and spatial scales.
  • 18-December-2020

    English

    Towards more sustainable solutions to forced displacement - What measures are donor countries applying to forced displacement in developing countries?

    The majority of forcibly displaced people worldwide are hosted by developing countries. Alternative routes to sustainable solutions for the forcibly displaced, particularly in developing countries, are drying up, and the path towards and support for local integration and longer-term development is becoming urgent. Based on a questionnaire, this report delves into the question of how donor countries are addressing forced displacement and whether the shift towards a focus incorporating the humanitarian-development-peace nexus in addressing forced displacement is tangible. It highlights lessons learned so far and proposes recommendations on broadening the current approach to addressing forced displacement in developing economies.
  • 18-December-2020

    English

    Towards Water Security in Belarus - A Synthesis Report

    This report presents the results of collaboration on improving water security in Belarus, between the beneficiary country, the OECD and its partners implementing the EU-funded European Union Water Initiative Plus project. It provides an overview of the composition and distribution of the country’s water resources, including the particular challenges facing different regions (oblasts), and lays out the policy responses that Belarus has taken and planned to progress its overarching policy objective of ensuring water security within the framework of the future national Water Strategy in the Context of Climate Change for the Period until 2030. The report also provides an assessment of potential opportunities to boost water security in Belarus by supporting the country’s ongoing water policy reform agenda.
  • 17-December-2020

    English

    The governance of regulators in Latin America - Evidence from the 2018 Indicators on the governance of sector regulators

    Using data from the 2018 OECD Indicators on the Governance of Sector Regulators, this paper analyses the governance of economic regulators in seven Latin American economies (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico and Peru) and across five critical network sectors (energy, e-communications, rail transport, air transport and water). The indicators allow for direct comparison of thirty economic regulators and provide a snapshot of the governance arrangements designed to preserve independence, practices to promote accountability, and the functions of the regulators. After describing key institutional characteristics of the regulators in the sample, the paper uses the indicators to identify patterns in governance. Evidence from in-depth performance reviews of regulators complements the indicators, shedding light on cost recovery fees, budgetary processes, and the use of advisory bodies in Latin American regulators.
  • 16-December-2020

    English

    Promoting an Age-Inclusive Workforce - Living, Learning and Earning Longer

    All OECD economies are undergoing rapid population ageing, leading to more age diversity in workplaces than ever before as people are not only living longer but working longer. Greater diversity of experience, generations and skills gives employers an important opportunity to harness the talent that different age groups bring to the workplace and improve productivity and profitability. What can employers do to maximise the benefits of a multigenerational workforce? This report presents a business case for embracing greater age diversity at the workplace and debunks several myths about generational differences in work performance, attitudes and motivations towards work. It points to key employer policies and offers practical examples in three key areas to support and promote an age-inclusive workforce. This includes designing and putting in place all-age and life-stage policies covering the full span of workers careers through best practice in recruitment, retention and retirement, as well as the promotion of life-long learning and good health at work.
  • 16-December-2020

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Indonesia 2020

    Building on the achievements since the first OECD Investment Policy Review of Indonesia a decade ago, this 2nd Review presents an assessment of the investment climate in Indonesia to support the government in its ongoing reform efforts. It identifies challenges and opportunities in selected policy areas and provides recommendations to increase competitiveness, support growth and ensure investment contributions are shared widely and environmentally sustainable. The review places great emphasis on measures to build a sound, transparent and responsible investment environment to support a resilient economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Also AvailableEgalement disponible(s)
  • << < 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 > >>