Publications


  • 26-July-2018

    English

    Working Together for Local Integration of Migrants and Refugees in Vienna

    Fast population growth in the city of Vienna is largely related to international migration.  Long-standing migrant communities represent half of Vienna’s population. In 2016, 50% of the inhabitants had migrant backgrounds, and since 2015, the number of refugees and asylum seekers in the city has increased. Since 1971, the city has developed dedicated administrative structures and local policies for migrants. A dedicated municipal unit (MA17) oversees how departments achieve migration-sensitive standards in their respective policy fields and produces the yearly Vienna Integration and Diversity monitoring report. A good practice is 'Start Wien',  a comprehensive coaching and information programme addressing newcomers (including asylum seekers) for the first two years after arrival. After that, foreign residents benefit from non-targeted measures, for instance from a programme fighting labour market exclusion of low-skilled groups. Vienna has avoided high segregation due to its large and well spread social housing. However migrants can only access it after five years of residency in the city, before which they rely on private rental market. Vienna establishes close contacts with migrant associations and NGOs at the district level and engages public consultations when formulating integration concepts. This report sheds light on how the municipality and non-state partners work together with the other levels of government for sustainable migrant and refugee integration.
  • 26-July-2018

    English

    Working Together for Local Integration of Migrants and Refugees in Barcelona

    In Barcelona, the rate of foreign residents has quintupled since 2000, and in 2017, 23% of the population was foreign-born. From the late 1990s until today, the municipality has followed an intercultural strategy to implement inclusive measures for local migrant integration. These measures have been recently reinforced to welcome asylum seekers who tripled between 2015 and 2017. For this group, the municipality set up targeted housing and reception policies that complement the national reception system. Migrants have access to municipal measures in key sectors such as housing, minimum living allowances and labour market integration - by the employment service Barcelona Activa - on the same basis as the other residents. Further, Barcelona has developed sensitization initiatives to curb discrimination and improve service delivery in the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods. The municipality has developed local coordination mechanisms with migrant associations and non-governmental organisations that aim to share information, avoid duplication and maximise the access to services such as language classes for migrants. Yet, migrants are particularly affected by socio-economic inequalities particularly following the economic crisis. This report sheds light on how the municipality and non-state partners work together with the other levels of government for sustainable migrant and refugee integration.
  • 26-July-2018

    English

    Working Together for Local Integration of Migrants and Refugees in Athens

    Migrants, including native-born children with migrant parents, account for 23% of Athens’ population (664 046 people), while the number of refugees and asylum seekers has rapidly increased since 2015 and is currently estimated at 18 000. To respond to the refugee inflow, Athens developed bold and innovative initiatives, often beyond their direct responsibilities, and sought supra-national and non-state sources of funding (i.e. Stavros Niarchos Foundation, British American Tobacco, etc.). This emphasis on reception and integration of newcomers is the result of strong political will and cooperation with non-state actors, in line with the city's broader priorities since 2010 including anti-discrimination and improving equal access to social services. Integrating newcomers through jobs is particularly challenging given the high unemployment rate that Greece has experienced. In addition, newcomers often have the desire to continue their journey towards northern European countries, reducing their incentives to integrate and learn Greek.
    While identifying various innovative practices, the OECD case study of Athens highlights the need for more reliable sources of financing and dialogue among levels of government. Data on migrant integration at the local level would support more evidence-based national, regional and local policy making.
  • 26-July-2018

    English

    How Immigrants Contribute to South Africa's Economy

    Immigrants contribute considerably to South Africa’s economy. In contrast to popular perception, immigration is not associated with a reduction of the employment rate of the native-born population in South Africa, and some groups of immigrants are likely to increase employment opportunities for the native-born. In part due to the high employment rate of the immigrant population itself, immigrants also raise the income per capita in South Africa. In addition, immigrants have a positive impact on the government’s fiscal balance, mostly because they tend to pay more in taxes. Policies focused on immigrant integration and fighting discrimination would further enhance the economic contribution of immigrants in South Africa.How Immigrants Contribute to South Africa’s Economy is the result of a project carried out by the OECD Development Centre and the International Labour Organization, with support from the European Union. The project aimed to analyse several economic impacts – on the labour market, economic growth, and public finance – of immigration in ten partner countries: Argentina, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, the Dominican Republic, Ghana, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Rwanda, South Africa and Thailand. The empirical evidence stems from a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses of secondary, and in some cases primary, data sources.
  • 20-juillet-2018

    Français

    Examens de l'OCDE du cadre d'évaluation de l'éducation : Maroc

    Comment les politiques d’évaluation du système éducatif peuvent-elles améliorer les résultats des élèves dans l’enseignement primaire et secondaire ?  À travers une perspective internationale, les rapports pays de cette série apportent une analyse indépendante des principaux enjeux des politiques d'évaluation pour identifier les améliorations possibles et renforcer la qualité, l'équité et l'efficacité du système scolaire.Le Maroc a réussi, lors des deux dernières décennies, à améliorer l'accès à l'école, en particulier dans le monde rural, et à généraliser la scolarisation dans l'enseignement primaire. Toutefois, l’amélioration de l'apprentissage de tous les jeunes, en leur garantissant un accès à un enseignement et à un apprentissage de haute qualité jusqu'à la fin des études secondaires, demeure un défi. Une majorité d'élèves quitte l'école sans finir les études secondaires et sans avoir acquis les compétences de bases requises pour une insertion effective dans la société et le marché du travail. Cet examen apporte au Maroc des recommandations pour aider à renforcer son cadre d'évaluation du système éducatif, en se concentrant sur l'apprentissage des élèves, en améliorant la responsabilisation des acteurs pour un enseignement et un apprentissage de qualité et en renforçant les capacités d'évaluation à tous les niveaux.
  • 20-July-2018

    English

    Access to Private Finance for Green Investments - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Financing in Ukraine

    This report provides a case study for the development of sustainable energy lending in Ukraine. It reviews the macro-economic and political context for green investments in Ukraine, before looking in more detail at the role and capacity of the banking sector. The study is part of a wider OECD project promoting access to private finance for green investments in the EU Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries, and follows on from a regional assessment undertaken in 2015. This work forms part of the 'Greening Economies in the European Union’s Eastern Neighbourhood' (EaP GREEN) programme, which aims to support the six Eastern Partnership countries to move towards a green economy by decoupling economic growth from environmental degradation and resource depletion.
  • 20-July-2018

    English

    World Energy Investment 2018

    World Energy Investment 2018 provides a critical benchmark for decision making by governments, the energy industry, and financial institutions to set policy frameworks, implement business strategies, finance new projects, and develop new technologies. It highlights the ways in which investment decisions taken today are determining how energy supply and demand will unfold tomorrow.
    The report looks at critical questions that have shaped the energy industry, including:
    • Which countries and policies attracted the most energy investment in 2017, and what fuels and technologies are growing fastest?
    • Is energy investment sufficient and targeted appropriately to realise the world’s energy transition objectives?
    • How are oil and gas companies responding to higher oil prices? Are they changing their strategy decisions in order to ensure adequate supplies while minimising long-term risks?
    • How is the business model for US shale evolving? Is the rapid growth of production in 2018 still largely based on continuous overspending or is the industry finally moving towards financial sustainability?
    • Are business models and financing approaches supporting a shift in power generation investments towards renewables? How are regulators around the world shaping enabling investments in power system networks and flexibility?
    • What policy and market factors drive energy efficiency spending? What new approaches to financing are emerging for efficient goods and services?
    • How are the sources of energy finance evolving? What roles are public financial institutions and utilities playing? How are decision makers addressing investment risks in India and other emerging economies?
    • What are governments and the energy sector spending on energy research and development? What are the main considerations facing investors in batteries and the electric vehicle value chain; carbon capture, utilisation and storage; and hydrogen?
  • 18-July-2018

    English

    OECD Reviews of School Resources: Colombia 2018

    This country review report offers an independent analysis of major issues facing the use of school resources in Colombia from an international perspective. It provides a description of national policies, an analysis of strengths and challenges, and a proposal of possible future approaches. The analysis focuses on the funding of school education, the provision of school education and the development of the teaching profession. Rural education represents a transversal theme of the report within the context of Colombia's peace agreement and objectives to close rural-urban gaps in social and economic development.Issues covered include the level of spending, sources of funding and funding mechanisms; the organisation of the school network, including the funding of private provision; school governance, leadership and community participation; the organisation of teaching and learning, including learning standards, educational materials, student assessment, and instruction time; teacher learning in pre-service and in-service education; and teacher recruitment and career progression.The report covers all levels of compulsory education as well as transitions from early childhood education and care to school education and from school education to the labour market and tertiary education.
  • 17-July-2018

    English

    States of Fragility 2018

    Three years into the 2030 Agenda it is already apparent that those living in fragile contexts are the furthest behind. Not all forms of fragility make it to the public’s eye: fragility is an intricate beast, sometimes exposed, often lurking underneath, but always holding progress back. Conflict, forced displacement, violent extremism, famine etc. are all causes and consequences of fragility. Hence the need to better understand, anticipate and respond to fragility.States of Fragility 2018 exposes the critical challenge posed by fragility in achieving the aspirations of the 2030 Agenda, sustainable development and peace. It highlights twelve key aspects of fragility, defying common assumptions and simplistic categorisation. It documents progress made in fragile situations on attaining sustainable development, unveiling exit doors from the fragility trap. It then illustrates the current state of financing to address fragility and suggests more effective approaches, accounting for its multidimensionality.Above all, the report aims to strike a balance between fragility's inherent complexity and the degree of simplicity that is required for efficient policy and decision making, namely through systems-based thinking; longer-term, consistent aid plans; the financing of peace; and a persistent focus on human beings. 
  • 16-July-2018

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Czech Republic 2018

    The Czech Republic has made progress in decoupling economic growth from freshwater abstractions, energy consumption, GHG and other air pollutants emissions. However, its strong industrial base and reliance on coal place the country among the most energy- and carbon-intensive in the OECD and air pollution is a serious health concern. Progressing towards sustainable development will require strengthening political commitment to a low-carbon economy and implementing more cost-effective environmental policies.
    This is the third Environmental Performance Review of the Czech Republic. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on waste, materials management and circular economy and sustainable urban development.
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