How can the Netherlands move its school system “from good to great”? This report draws on international experience to look at ways in which the strong Dutch school system might go further still on the path to excellence. Clearly the Dutch school system is one of the best in the OECD, as measured by PISA and PIAAC and is also equitable, with a very low proportion of poor performers. The report therefore proposes an incremental approach to reform, building on strengths while responding to some emerging challenges. The Netherlands should strengthen the quality of early childhood education and care, revisit policies related to early tracking with more objective testing and track decisions, and enhance the permeability of the system. It should develop the professionalism of teachers and school leaders through enhanced collective learning and working, while at the same time strengthening accountability and capacity in school boards. This report will be valuable not only for the Netherlands, but also to the many other education systems looking to raise their performance who are interested in the example of the Netherlands.
Ce rapport présente une analyse approfondie des résultats de l’Évaluation des compétences des adultes dans le
domaine de la résolution de problèmes dans des environnements à forte composante technologique, ainsi que
des indicateurs sur l’utilisation des TIC et la résolution de problèmes. Les pays nordiques et les Pays-Bas affichent
les pourcentages les plus élevés d’adultes (environ 40 %) aux niveaux supérieurs de l’échelle de compétences en
résolution de problèmes, tandis que l’Irlande, la Pologne et la République slovaque accusent les pourcentages
les plus faibles (environ 20 %) d’adultes à ces niveaux. La variation des niveaux de compétences en résolution de
problèmes à l’aide des TIC s’observant entre les pays reflète des différences d’accès à Internet et de fréquence
d’utilisation du courrier électrique parmi les adultes. Ce rapport met au jour une forte corrélation entre d’un côté,
les compétences en résolution de problèmes, et de l’autre, l’âge et les compétences cognitives génériques, même
après contrôle d’autres facteurs pertinents. Il montre l’existence d’un lien entre la maîtrise des compétences
en résolution de problèmes à l’aide des TIC et l’élévation du taux d’activité, la baisse du taux de chômage et
l’augmentation de la rémunération. Par contraste, il souligne la forte incidence négative d’un manque d’expérience
en informatique sur la situation sur le marché du travail, même après contrôle d’autres facteurs. L’analyse examine
les politiques permettant de promouvoir l’accès aux TIC et leur utilisation, les possibilités de développer les
compétences en résolution de problèmes à l’aide de la formation scolaire ou de l’apprentissage tout au long de
la vie, et l’importance des compétences en résolution de problèmes dans le cadre des services publics en ligne.
Despite the difficult economic climate, Portugal has continued to develop and reform its energy policies since the previous International Energy Agency (IEA) in-depth review in 2009. These changes have resulted in greater economic activity in the energy sector, increased renewable energy deployment, further market liberalisation and greater emphasis on energy efficiency in policy making.
A new strategy emphasising renewable energy and energy efficiency has focused efforts on meeting national and European energy policy objectives, as Portugal seeks also to lower investment costs and greater national competitiveness. The new strategy includes proposals to reinforce interconnections with transnational European electricity and natural gas networks, and measures to promote economic and environmental sustainability. The strategy should accommodate regular independent reviews and monitoring tools to examine implementation of energy policy to ensure that it remains relevant and cost-effective.
Following the economic crisis, Portugal was left with a substantial tariff deficit as retail electricity tariffs were set below costs, including subsidies to renewables. Portugal’s plan to address the tariff deficit was the outcome of a negotiation process with industry stakeholders. Eliminating the tariff debt by 2020 is a significant challenge. The government must ensure swift implementation of all reform proposals and continue its efforts to identify further potential cost-saving measures in the energy sector.
This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Portugal and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
This review analyses the governance and institutional framework of digital government in Chile. It is based on the OECD Recommendation on Digital Government Strategies. It first benchmarks the institutional arrangements of ten advanced countries in the field of digital government, assessing their strategies, digital government units or bodies and policy levers, as well as the co-ordination mechanisms in place. The review then provides an in-depth look at the institutional set-up of digital government in Chile. The assessment reveals that the governance of digital government in Chile would benefit from a stronger legal basis, providing the unit leading the work on digital government with a better grounding and the necessary levers to drive the digital transformation of government and public services. Based on this analysis, the OECD advances two alternative recommendations to strengthen the institutional framework of digital government to foster public sector productivity, enhance efficiencies and improve service delivery. The strengths and weaknesses of the alternatives discussed in detail. The review includes a roadmap for the implementation of both alternatives.
How can Latvia improve the quality and equity of its education system and realise long-term efficiency gains? This report covers the whole education system from early childhood education and care to tertiary education and provides an assessment of Latvia’s policies and practices against the best approaches in education and skills across the OECD. This international comparison brings to the fore the many strengths of Latvia’s education system, but also highlights the challenges it faces and provides a number of recommendations in response. This report will be of value to Latvia but also policy makers in other countries looking to raise the quality, equity and efficiency of their education systems.
Accelerating energy technology innovation is crucial to meet energy and climate goals, to support economic growth and to enhance energy security. Successful development and deployment of innovative energy technologies requires that stakeholders from both the public and private sector share knowledge, work collaboratively and, where appropriate, pool resources to deliver integrated, cost effective solutions to common challenges.
Four decades ago, the founders of the IEA had the foresight to create a multilateral technology collaboration mechanism – the IEA Implementing Agreements (IAs) – that has withstood the test of time and today is more relevant than ever to delivering solutions to global energy challenges. This network of experts produced a range of noteworthy results, including inventions, pilot plants, demonstration projects, databases and development of standards. The year 2015 marked the 40th anniversary of the mechanism as well as the rebranding of the IAs as Technology Collaboration Programmes (TCPs).
This publication provides an overview of the activities and recent accomplishments of TCPs. The 39 TCPs operating today involve about 6 000 experts from government, industry and research organisations in 51 countries around the world. Participants in TCPs have examined more than 1 900 energy-related topics in the areas of energy efficiency, renewable energy, fossil fuels, fusion power and cross-cutting issues.
The unrivalled breadth and coverage of analytical expertise seen in TCPs are unique assets that will underpin for the years to come IEA efforts to support innovation for energy security, economic growth and environmental protection.
In recent years, Belgium has made clear progress in increasing competition in the electricity and natural gas markets. It has also managed to reduce the use of fossil fuels and increase the use of renewable energy. The country´s economy is becoming less energy intensive.
Belgium has excellent gas transport infrastructure, and its gas market is well-integrated with those of its neighbours. The country’s emergency oil stock levels are also high.
As in all IEA member countries, a major challenge for Belgium is to decarbonise the economy while ensuring security of supply and affordability of energy. A long-term approach is required, and, given that responsibility for energy policy is divided between the federal and regional governments, the authorities must work decisively together to form a national energy strategy.
Nuclear energy accounts for around half of Belgium’s electricity generation. The current policy is to close all nuclear power plants between 2022 and 2025, but this would seriously challenge Belgium’s efforts to ensure electricity security and provide affordable low-carbon electricity. The phase-out schedule should be relaxed to let the plants run as long as the regulator considers them safe.
To attract critical investments in the energy sector – especially in electricity generation – the government should follow closely the principles of transparency, predictability and regulatory certainty.
Under any scenario, energy supply needs to be further diversified and energy demand further limited. Transport and buildings hold a large potential for efficiency and climate gains, and fiscal incentives and price signals could be used more frequently in order to reap them.
This report responds to the request by G7 Leaders at the Schloss Elmau Summit in June 2015, for the OECD to develop policy guidance on resource efficiency. Establishing a resource efficient economy is a major environmental, development and macroeconomic challenge today. Improving resource efficiency by putting in place policies that implement the principles of reduce, reuse, recycle (the 3Rs) is crucial to improving resource use, security and competitiveness while diminishing the associated environmental impacts.
This review is the first in a new series on the skills and labour market integration of immigrants and their children. With 16% of its population born abroad, Sweden has one of the larger immigrant populations among the European OECD countries. Estimates suggest that about half of the foreign-born population originally came to Sweden as refugees or as the family of refugees and Sweden has been the OECD country that has had by far the largest inflows of asylum seekers relative to its population. In all OECD countries, humanitarian migrants and their families face greater challenges to integrate into the labour market than other groups. It is thus not surprising that immigrant versus native-born differences are larger than elsewhere, which also must be seen in the context of high skills and labour market participation among the native-born. For both genders, employment disparities are particularly pronounced among the low-educated, among whom immigrants are heavily overrepresented. These immigrants face particular challenges related to the paucity of low-skilled jobs in Sweden, and policy needs to acknowledge that their integration pathway tends to be a long one. Against this backdrop, Sweden has highly developed and longstanding integration policies that mainly aim at upskilling immigrants while temporarily lowering the cost of hiring, while other tools that work more strongly with the social partners and the civil society are less well developed and need strengthening.
Effective tax systems are a critical building block for increased domestic resources in developing countries, essential for sustainable development and for promoting self-reliance, good governance, growth and stability. This report begins with an overview of the current tax capacity building landscape, highlighting key initiatives and recent developments that have emerged in response to developing country needs. It then examines how tax administrations, as well as international and regional organisations, are supporting and delivering capacity building assistance to developing countries, and it offers guidance both in relation to G20 priorities and more generally. The report is based on a mapping exercise and a survey of members of the OECD’s Forum on Tax Administration (FTA), drawing on the insights and expertise of a nine-country task team led by the FTA commissioners of Canada and China and supported by the FTA Secretariat.