Partager

Publications


  • 8-October-2020

    English

    Rejuvenating Greece’s labour market to generate more and higher-quality jobs

    Greece’s labour market entered the COVID-19 shock following several years of sustained employment growth and with wages picking up. Unemployment remained high and employment rates were low, especially among women, the young and older workers. The shock led to a sharp fall in labour force activity and has stalled new hiring. The improved social protection and temporary support measures have helped to support households’ incomes and protect jobs during the COVID-19 crisis. However, high tax and social security contribution rates, together with little in-work support for the low-paid, continue abetting high structural informality. This heightens insecurity – by excluding many workers from activation policies or social and employment protection – and weakens productivity. Boosting the capacity of employment services and activation policies would support the recovery from the COVID-19 shock, in addition to durably improving employment prospects especially of long-term unemployed. Giving workplaces further flexibility to adapt collective agreements to specific circumstances would help align wage growth with productivity developments and help businesses to weather the COVID-19 shock. Building on the population’s solid education levels by equipping workers with the skills needed by the labour market can support employment and incomes. This will require a substantial boost to professional education and training at all levels and ages. This chapter applies the 2018 OECD Jobs Strategy to Greece to identify reforms that can help to overcome the COVID-19 crisis and create a virtuous cycle between productivity, job creation, and well-being.
  • 8-October-2020

    English

    The effect of energy prices and environmental policy stringency on manufacturing employment in OECD countries: Sector- and firm-level evidence

    This study empirically assesses the impact of energy prices and environmental policy stringency (EPS) on manufacturing employment in OECD countries over the period 2000- 2014. At the sector level, increases in energy prices and in EPS have a negative and statistically significant impact on total employment in the manufacturing sector. Energy-intensive sectors are most affected, while the impact is not statistically significant for less energy-intensive sectors. Even in highly energy-intensive sectors, however, the size of the effect is relatively small. Moreover, higher energy prices increase the probability of firm exit, but they have a statistically significant and small positive effect on the employment level of surviving firms. Accelerated firm exit allows surviving firms to expand, boosting firm-level employment. Therefore, the analysis demonstrates that there exist transition costs in the short run to imposing stricter environmental policies, as some workers are forced to move away from affected firms and sectors, even if many of these job losses are unlikely to be permanent as laid-off workers may ultimately find other jobs, notably in the services sector.
  • 8-octobre-2020

    Français

    Examen d'intégrité dans les marchés publics du Québec, Canada - Une approche stratégique contre les risques de corruption

    Ce rapport offre une analyse ciblée des mesures prises pour renforcer l’intégrité et combattre la corruption dans les marchés publics au Québec, Canada. Réalisé à la demande du Gouvernement du Québec, il fait suite à la découverte de cas de corruption par la Commission d’enquête sur l’octroi et la gestion des contrats publics dans l’industrie de la construction (Commission Charbonneau). Ce rapport analyse les progrès accomplis afin de mettre en œuvre les recommandations de la Commission Charbonneau, et de situer ces mesures par rapport aux bonnes pratiques des pays de l’OCDE. Le rapport met en évidence comment adopter une approche stratégique et proactive pour développer un système d’intégrité robuste, ainsi que les moyens d’atténuer les risques de corruption dans l’ensemble des étapes du cycle de la commande publique.
  • 8-October-2020

    English

    Boosting access to credit and ensuring financial inclusion for all in Costa Rica

    Having access to credit is essential for households to address the volatility of their personal finances over time and for firms to fund their investments. Accessing financial services at affordable cost on the other hand, is crucial to ensure financial security of all economic units. Despite recent improvements, there are still large financial inclusion disparities in Costa Rica, notably across regions, by gender, and size of firms. This paper discusses policy reforms that would reduce these disparities. Some of the key policy priorities are to improve transparency by strengthening the credit registry and allocating the development banking credit more effectively. Enhancing financial literacy could help avoid excessive consumer indebtedness. Technological innovation would also help Costa Rica: granting FinTech start-ups direct and full access to the state-of-the-art electronic payments system would increase competition, reduce transactions costs and ensure financial inclusion for all.
  • 7-October-2020

    English

    OECD Skills Strategy Implementation Guidance for Latvia - Developing Latvia’s Education Development Guidelines 2021-2027

    In order to pave the path to future success, Latvia has developed its Education Development Guidelines 2021-2027, which identifies key policy initiatives that are critical for skills development. The Guidelines outline how Latvia will equip its citizens with skills to flourish in work and in society. Evidence on the strengths and weaknesses of Latvia’s education and skills systems has informed the prioritisation of relevant policies in the Guidelines. A wide range of Latvian actors across ministries, levels of government, education and training providers, employers, trade unions, the non-profit sector and learners have been involved in the development of the Guidelines, demonstrating their commitment to work together to implement these initiatives. Looking to the future, more can be done to position Latvia to successfully implement the policy priorities and reach the targets encompassed by the Guidelines. As the COVID-19 crisis has reminded us, the future is uncertain and therefore all plans must be designed to be responsive and adaptable to overcome future challenges and seize future opportunities. Building on the OECD Skills Strategy Assessment and Recommendations phase, the Implementation Guidance phase has supported Latvia in the development of the Education Development Guidelines 2021‑2027 by providing guidance on selecting policy actions, improving Latvia’s indicator system, and selecting performance indicators.
  • 7-October-2020

    English

    Corporate Governance in Costa Rica

    This review of Corporate Governance in Costa Rica was prepared as part of Costa Rica’s accession process for OECD membership. During the three-year period of the review, the government made substantial progress in strengthening its institutional and legal framework in line with the G20/OECD Principles of Corporate Governance and OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs). The report evaluates Costa Rica’s corporate governance policies and practices for both listed and state-owned companies. It finds that while Costa Rica’s capital market is quite small, its framework for corporate governance of listed companies is largely consistent with the Principles. Costa Rica has seen particular progress in issuing a new corporate governance code and requirements related to ownership disclosure. For SOEs, which play a key role in the Costa Rican economy, the Presidency has taken important steps to establish a co-ordinating unit which has spearheaded numerous reforms. These reforms include issuing a government ownership policy, more transparent and structured appointments of SOE board members (while removing politicians from boards), and reporting on SOEs’ performance. To further strengthen SOE performance and accountability, the report recommends additional steps to improve board practices, clarify performance objectives and implement International Financial Reporting Standards.
    Also AvailableEgalement disponible(s)
  • 7-octobre-2020

    Français

  • 7-October-2020

    English

    The OECD Digital Government Policy Framework - Six dimensions of a Digital Government

    This paper presents the OECD Digital Government Policy Framework (DGPF), a policy instrument to help governments identifying key determinants for effective design and implementation of strategic approaches to transition towards higher levels of digital maturity of their public sectors. This analytical work builds on the provisions of the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Digital Government Strategies and supports the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the Secretariat across countries and individual projects. The DGPF provides the ground for peer reviews and frames the design of the methodology and the OECD Survey on Digital Government to measure countries’ digital government maturity across the six dimensions covered in this Framework: digital by design, data-driven public sector, government as a platform, open by default, user-driven and proactiveness. The document is enriched with countries' practices to illustrate the concepts covered in each of the six dimensions of the DGPF.
  • 7-October-2020

    English

    Reframing Financing and Investment for a Sustainable Ocean Economy

    This paper sets out a new framing of the challenges and opportunities for scaling up financing and investment for a sustainable ocean economy. It examines the particular challenges associated with financing sustainable ocean activities across different sectors and explores promising financing instruments, including by identifying learnings from elsewhere in the green finance sphere. This paper contributes to the OECD horizontal ocean project. To support government efforts to transition to a more sustainable ocean economy, the OECD is mobilising expertise across multiple policy fronts, covering environmental, economic, financial and social dimensions. Working with both developed and developing countries, the OECD aims to ensure that all societies can harness the benefits of the ocean on a sustainable and inclusive basis.
  • 7-October-2020

    English

    Employment and Skills Strategies in Indonesia

    This report comes at a time when policy makers are challenged by the COVID-19 crisis that is generating a profound reflection on economic and social well-being. Before COVID-19 hit, Indonesia had experienced remarkable economic growth, making substantial progress in poverty reduction and gains in employment. However, there are large differences in outcomes across Indonesian provinces, which often reflect the quality of local infrastructure, services, education, and jobs. This joint Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) study sheds light on challenges and opportunities to promote employment and skills outcomes at the local level in Indonesia. The analysis presented in this OECD/ADB report shows the importance of strengthening local institutions managing and delivering employment and skills policies.
  • << < 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 > >>