The OECD series Recruiting Immigrant Workers comprises country studies of labour migration policies. Each volume analyses whether migration policy is being used effectively and efficiently to help meet labour needs, without adverse effects on labour markets. It focuses mainly on regulated labour migration movements over which policy has immediate and direct oversight. This particular volume looks at the efficiency of European Union instruments for managing labour migration.
Nordic Energy Technology Perspectives 2016 presents a clear technological and economical pathway for the Nordic region towards a nearly carbon-neutral energy system in 2050. Nordic countries’ success can send a strong signal to the global community that the ambitions of the Paris Agreement from COP21 are achievable.
The report identifies opportunities for policy makers and the private sector in three strategic areas:
1. Incentivise and plan for a significantly more distributed, flexible and interconnected Nordic electricity system. A decentralised electricity supply with a high share of wind is likely to achieve a carbon-neutral system at lower cost than a system reliant on nuclear and thermal generation. But the shift will require flexibility measures beyond those now provided by Nordic hydropower, as well as a significant increase in cross-border electricity trade.
2. Ramp up technologies to decarbonise energy-intensive industries and long-distance transport. Emissions from industries like steel and cement are the most challenging to reduce, requiring rapid advances in the demonstration and deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and other innovative technologies. Electrification will be at the core of most low-carbon transportation, but long-distance transport will likely require large volumes of biofuels.
3. Tap into cities’ positive momentum to strengthen national decarbonisation and enhance energy efficiency in transport and buildings. Driven in part by air quality, health and congestion objectives, many Nordic cities lead their countries’ decarbonisation efforts, with more ambitious targets and advanced roll-out of electric vehicles.
After a period of relatively robust growth that has allowed tens of millions of poorer households to join the global middle class, growth in Latin America has slowed recently, partly as a result of external factors. To close the still large gaps in living standards in relation to advanced economies, the region needs to significantly raise productivity growth while making sure that everybody has the opportunity to benefit from it. This will require comprehensive structural reforms, supported by a pro-productivity policy framework that incorporates social inclusion considerations from the outset.
This report provides the first comprehensive study of publicly capitalised green investment banks (GIBs), analysing the rationales, mandates and financing activities of this relatively new category of public financial institution. Based on the experience of over a dozen GIBs and GIB-like entities, the report provides a non-prescriptive stock-taking of the diverse ways in which these public institutions are catalysing private investment in low-carbon, climate-resilient infrastructure and other green sectors, with a spotlight on energy efficiency projects. The report also provides practical information to policy makers on how green investment banks are being set up, capitalised and staffed.
Public governance can make a broad-based contribution to sound, sustainable and inclusive growth. Aligning public governance tools and processes with the broader objectives of policy making for inclusive growth can help governments deal with the complexities that go hand-in-hand with reconciling growth and inclusiveness. These complexities include setting out a vision, ensuring that policies complement each other and that different parts of government work together towards common goals, and engaging stakeholders to improve effectiveness, delivery and inclusion. After describing the OECD approach to inclusive growth, the report discusses which public governance principles, tools and arrangements can be used, and when, to enable a whole-of-government shift towards inclusive growth.
How can the Netherlands move its school system “from good to great”? This report draws on international experience to look at ways in which the strong Dutch school system might go further still on the path to excellence. Clearly the Dutch school system is one of the best in the OECD, as measured by PISA and PIAAC and is also equitable, with a very low proportion of poor performers. The report therefore proposes an incremental approach to reform, building on strengths while responding to some emerging challenges. The Netherlands should strengthen the quality of early childhood education and care, revisit policies related to early tracking with more objective testing and track decisions, and enhance the permeability of the system. It should develop the professionalism of teachers and school leaders through enhanced collective learning and working, while at the same time strengthening accountability and capacity in school boards. This report will be valuable not only for the Netherlands, but also to the many other education systems looking to raise their performance who are interested in the example of the Netherlands.
Ce rapport présente une analyse approfondie des résultats de l’Évaluation des compétences des adultes dans le
domaine de la résolution de problèmes dans des environnements à forte composante technologique, ainsi que
des indicateurs sur l’utilisation des TIC et la résolution de problèmes. Les pays nordiques et les Pays-Bas affichent
les pourcentages les plus élevés d’adultes (environ 40 %) aux niveaux supérieurs de l’échelle de compétences en
résolution de problèmes, tandis que l’Irlande, la Pologne et la République slovaque accusent les pourcentages
les plus faibles (environ 20 %) d’adultes à ces niveaux. La variation des niveaux de compétences en résolution de
problèmes à l’aide des TIC s’observant entre les pays reflète des différences d’accès à Internet et de fréquence
d’utilisation du courrier électrique parmi les adultes. Ce rapport met au jour une forte corrélation entre d’un côté,
les compétences en résolution de problèmes, et de l’autre, l’âge et les compétences cognitives génériques, même
après contrôle d’autres facteurs pertinents. Il montre l’existence d’un lien entre la maîtrise des compétences
en résolution de problèmes à l’aide des TIC et l’élévation du taux d’activité, la baisse du taux de chômage et
l’augmentation de la rémunération. Par contraste, il souligne la forte incidence négative d’un manque d’expérience
en informatique sur la situation sur le marché du travail, même après contrôle d’autres facteurs. L’analyse examine
les politiques permettant de promouvoir l’accès aux TIC et leur utilisation, les possibilités de développer les
compétences en résolution de problèmes à l’aide de la formation scolaire ou de l’apprentissage tout au long de
la vie, et l’importance des compétences en résolution de problèmes dans le cadre des services publics en ligne.
Despite the difficult economic climate, Portugal has continued to develop and reform its energy policies since the previous International Energy Agency (IEA) in-depth review in 2009. These changes have resulted in greater economic activity in the energy sector, increased renewable energy deployment, further market liberalisation and greater emphasis on energy efficiency in policy making.
A new strategy emphasising renewable energy and energy efficiency has focused efforts on meeting national and European energy policy objectives, as Portugal seeks also to lower investment costs and greater national competitiveness. The new strategy includes proposals to reinforce interconnections with transnational European electricity and natural gas networks, and measures to promote economic and environmental sustainability. The strategy should accommodate regular independent reviews and monitoring tools to examine implementation of energy policy to ensure that it remains relevant and cost-effective.
Following the economic crisis, Portugal was left with a substantial tariff deficit as retail electricity tariffs were set below costs, including subsidies to renewables. Portugal’s plan to address the tariff deficit was the outcome of a negotiation process with industry stakeholders. Eliminating the tariff debt by 2020 is a significant challenge. The government must ensure swift implementation of all reform proposals and continue its efforts to identify further potential cost-saving measures in the energy sector.
This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Portugal and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
This review analyses the governance and institutional framework of digital government in Chile. It is based on the OECD Recommendation on Digital Government Strategies. It first benchmarks the institutional arrangements of ten advanced countries in the field of digital government, assessing their strategies, digital government units or bodies and policy levers, as well as the co-ordination mechanisms in place. The review then provides an in-depth look at the institutional set-up of digital government in Chile. The assessment reveals that the governance of digital government in Chile would benefit from a stronger legal basis, providing the unit leading the work on digital government with a better grounding and the necessary levers to drive the digital transformation of government and public services. Based on this analysis, the OECD advances two alternative recommendations to strengthen the institutional framework of digital government to foster public sector productivity, enhance efficiencies and improve service delivery. The strengths and weaknesses of the alternatives discussed in detail. The review includes a roadmap for the implementation of both alternatives.
How can Latvia improve the quality and equity of its education system and realise long-term efficiency gains? This report covers the whole education system from early childhood education and care to tertiary education and provides an assessment of Latvia’s policies and practices against the best approaches in education and skills across the OECD. This international comparison brings to the fore the many strengths of Latvia’s education system, but also highlights the challenges it faces and provides a number of recommendations in response. This report will be of value to Latvia but also policy makers in other countries looking to raise the quality, equity and efficiency of their education systems.