Publications


  • 19-May-2016

    English

    Technology Collaboration Programmes - Highlights and outcomes

    Accelerating energy technology innovation is crucial to meet energy and climate goals, to support economic growth and to enhance energy security. Successful development and deployment of innovative energy technologies requires that stakeholders from both the public and private sector share knowledge, work collaboratively and, where appropriate, pool resources to deliver integrated, cost effective solutions to common challenges.

    Four decades ago, the founders of the IEA had the foresight to create a multilateral technology collaboration mechanism – the IEA Implementing Agreements (IAs) – that has withstood the test of time and today is more relevant than ever to delivering solutions to global energy challenges. This network of experts produced a range of noteworthy results, including inventions, pilot plants, demonstration projects, databases and development of standards. The year 2015 marked the 40th anniversary of the mechanism as well as the rebranding of the IAs as Technology Collaboration Programmes (TCPs).

    This publication provides an overview of the activities and recent accomplishments of TCPs. The 39 TCPs operating today involve about 6 000 experts from government, industry and research organisations in 51 countries around the world. Participants in TCPs have examined more than 1 900 energy-related topics in the areas of energy efficiency, renewable energy, fossil fuels, fusion power and cross-cutting issues.

    The unrivalled breadth and coverage of analytical expertise seen in TCPs are unique assets that will underpin for the years to come IEA efforts to support innovation for energy security, economic growth and environmental protection.

  • 19-May-2016

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Belgium 2016

    In recent years, Belgium has made clear progress in increasing competition in the electricity and natural gas markets. It has also managed to reduce the use of fossil fuels and increase the use of renewable energy. The country´s economy is becoming less energy intensive.

    Belgium has excellent gas transport infrastructure, and its gas market is well-integrated with those of its neighbours. The country’s emergency oil stock levels are also high.

    As in all IEA member countries, a major challenge for Belgium is to decarbonise the economy while ensuring security of supply and affordability of energy. A long-term approach is required, and, given that responsibility for energy policy is divided between the federal and regional governments, the authorities must work decisively together to form a national energy strategy.

    Nuclear energy accounts for around half of Belgium’s electricity generation. The current policy is to close all nuclear power plants between 2022 and 2025, but this would seriously challenge Belgium’s efforts to ensure electricity security and provide affordable low-carbon electricity. The phase-out schedule should be relaxed to let the plants run as long as the regulator considers them safe.

    To attract critical investments in the energy sector – especially in electricity generation – the government should follow closely the principles of transparency, predictability and regulatory certainty.

    Under any scenario, energy supply needs to be further diversified and energy demand further limited. Transport and buildings hold a large potential for efficiency and climate gains, and fiscal incentives and price signals could be used more frequently in order to reap them.

  • 15-May-2016

    English

    Policy Guidance on Resource Efficiency

    This report responds to the request by G7 Leaders at the Schloss Elmau Summit in June 2015, for the OECD to develop policy guidance on resource efficiency. Establishing a resource efficient economy is a major environmental, development and macroeconomic challenge today. Improving resource efficiency by putting in place policies that implement the principles of reduce, reuse, recycle (the 3Rs) is crucial to improving resource use, security and competitiveness while diminishing the associated environmental impacts.

  • 13-May-2016

    English

    Working Together: Skills and Labour Market Integration of Immigrants and their Children in Sweden

    This review is the first in a new series on the skills and labour market integration of immigrants and their children. With 16% of its population born abroad, Sweden has one of the larger immigrant populations among the European OECD countries. Estimates suggest that about half of the foreign-born population originally came to Sweden as refugees or as the family of refugees and Sweden has been the OECD country that has had by far the largest inflows of asylum seekers relative to its population. In all OECD countries, humanitarian migrants and their families face greater challenges to integrate into the labour market than other groups. It is thus not surprising that immigrant versus native-born differences are larger than elsewhere, which also must be seen in the context of high skills and labour market participation among the native-born. For both genders, employment disparities are particularly pronounced among the low-educated, among whom immigrants are heavily overrepresented. These immigrants face particular challenges related to the paucity of low-skilled jobs in Sweden, and policy needs to acknowledge that their integration pathway tends to be a long one. Against this backdrop, Sweden has highly developed and longstanding integration policies that mainly aim at upskilling immigrants while temporarily lowering the cost of hiring, while other tools that work more strongly with the social partners and the civil society are less well developed and need strengthening.

  • 13-May-2016

    English

    Tax Administrations and Capacity Building - A Collective Challenge

    Effective tax systems are a critical building block for increased domestic resources in developing countries, essential for sustainable development and for promoting self-reliance, good governance, growth and stability. This report begins with an overview of the current tax capacity building landscape, highlighting key initiatives and recent developments that have emerged in response to developing country needs. It then examines how tax administrations, as well as international and regional organisations, are supporting and delivering capacity building assistance to developing countries, and it offers guidance both in relation to G20 priorities and more generally. The report is based on a mapping exercise and a survey of members of the OECD’s Forum on Tax Administration (FTA), drawing on the insights and expertise of a nine-country task team led by the FTA commissioners of Canada and China and supported by the FTA Secretariat.

  • 13-May-2016

    English

    Technologies for Better Tax Administration - A Practical Guide for Revenue Bodies

    This report looks at effective e-service provision by tax administrations, summarising eight critical areas, and explores big data management and portals, as well as natural systems, in detail. It highlights key opportunities in these areas, looking at how these emerging technologies can be best used by tax administrations. It also provides practical examples of how tax administrations have begun to utilise these technologies and delivers a maturity matrix for the two areas to assist strategic and operational decision making by tax administrations. Finally, it sets out conclusions, recommendations and next steps.

    This report has been prepared by the Forum on Tax Administration’s E-services and Digital Delivery Programme. The work was initiated by the FTA Bureau as part of its 2015/16 work programme and was led by the Federal Tax Service of Russia (FTS).  With tax administrations clear that e-service options can improve taxpayer compliance levels and participation while at the same time lowering their cost of operation; but with available options many and varied, and with the cost of implementation high,  the FTA has over the last five years provided a wide range of guidance in the deployment of effective e-services.

     

  • 13-May-2016

    English

    Advanced Analytics for Better Tax Administration - Putting Data to Work

    This report highlights the key opportunities and challenges in establishing, operating, or improving advanced analytics functions in tax administrations. The report provides practical examples of how administrations are currently utilising advanced analytics, and discusses key topics, including organisational arrangements, governance, management and data. The report also discusses how administrations are utilising analytics to improve their operations and deliver better outcomes to taxpayers. Finally, it sets out conclusions, recommendations and next steps. 
    This report has been prepared by the Forum on Tax Administration’s Advanced Analytics Programme. The work was initiated by the FTA Bureau following the biennial conference on Advanced Analytics hosted by the Irish Revenue Commissioners in March 2015. That workshop identified member country interest in undertaking work to identify member experience in analytics delivery and share information on both the technologies and tools they were using.

     

  • 13-May-2016

    English

    Rethinking Tax Services - The Changing Role of Tax Service Providers in SME Tax Compliance

    The landscape of tax services, traditionally provided by parties such as tax advisors, accountants and other tax practitioners, is changing, thanks to new technologies and services such as online accounting and filing, mobile devices, and machine-to-machine communication. This may lead to more integrated tax systems, in which taxation is part of the day-to-day operations of SMEs. This report provides an overview of relevant technological and business developments and new service solutions. It also explores how these influence SMEs, tax service providers and tax administrations – and the way that they co-operate. Tax administrations can adopt different types of network strategies for co-operating with tax service providers. The report identifies four basic network strategies. In countries without an established tax service provider infrastructure, such as developing and emerging economies, leveraging new technologies (such as online services and mobile payment) may create new possibilities for providing infrastructure that is both beneficial for SMEs and promotes tax compliance.

  • 13-May-2016

    English

    Co-operative Tax Compliance - Building Better Tax Control Frameworks

    This report outlines the essential features of a Tax Control Framework (TCF) and addresses revenue bodies’ expectations of TCFs. It includes a discussion of the issue of materiality, as it is important to understand the relationship between what is material for the purposes of systems of control, such as the external audit of a multinational enterprise’s accounts, and what is material in terms of the tax liabilities arising from that enterprise’s activities in a particular country. It also discusses how revenue bodies could approach the task of testing the soundness of a TCF in any particular case and finally, sets out conclusions, recommendations and next steps.

  • 12-May-2016

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Philippines 2016

    This review assesses the overall investment climate in the Philippines, looking at investment policy, investment promotion and facilitation, competition policy, infrastructure investment and responsible business conduct. The Review documents successful reform episodes over the past 25 years in the Philippines, assesses their impact and suggests areas for further reforms. It looks at how to raise investment levels by both foreign and domestic enterprises and at how to ensure that such investment contributes to sustainable and inclusive growth. The current macroeconomic situation in the Philippines is favourable, remittances are high, the business process outsource industry is booming, and the new Competition Act will help to make the domestic market more competitive. The Review argues for one further reform push to ease the many restrictions on foreign investors in the Philippines so as to provide an investment climate where all firms can invest and grow.

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