This report, commissioned by the XIX Government of Portugal, provides an evaluation of the comprehensive labour market reforms undertaken in Portugal over the period 2011-2015. It describes reforms in the areas of employment protection legislation, unemployment benefits, activation, collective bargaining, minimum wages and working time. The report reviews the reforms in detail and assesses the available evidence on the impact they have had on the labour market. The report concludes that the Portuguese labour market reforms were a move in the right direction. However, despite the progress made, many challenges remain and some of the reforms may not have gone far enough. Unemployment remains high and this situation has fuelled an increase in both poverty and long-term unemployment The labour market remains highly segmented and, in the context of very low inflation, the presence of downward nominal wage rigidity is likely to remain a barrier to the competitiveness of the Portuguese economy – unless productivity growth is strengthened.
Highly qualified and competent teachers are fundamental for equitable and effective education systems. Teachers today are facing higher and more complex expectations to help students reach their full potential and become valuable members of 21st century society. The nature and variety of these demands imply that teachers, more than ever before, must be professionals who make decisions based on a robust and updated knowledge base.
This publication presents research and ideas from multiple perspectives on pedagogical knowledge - the knowledge of teaching and learning - and the changing nature of the teaching profession. It provides a modern account of teachers’ professional competence, and how this relates to student learning. The report looks at knowledge dynamics in the teaching profession and investigates how teachers’ knowledge can be measured. It provides precious insights into 21st century demands on teacher knowledge.
This volume also offers a conceptual base for a future empirical study on teachers’ knowledge. It will be a useful resource for those interested in understanding the different factors underlying high quality teaching through examining and outlining the complexity of the teaching profession. In particular, this publication will be of interest to teacher educators, educational leaders, policy makers and the research community.
This review introduces the background to and issues at stake in promoting equal partnerships in families in Germany. It encourages German policy makers to build on the important reforms since the mid-2000s to enable both fathers and mothers to have careers and children, and urges families to “dare to share”. To those ends it places Germany’s experience in an international comparison, and draws from the experience in, for example, France and the Nordic countries which have longstanding policies to support work-life balance and strengthen gender equality. The review starts with an overview chapter also explaining why and how equal sharing pays for families, children, the economy and society as a whole. The book presents current outcomes, policy trends, as well as detailed analysis of the drivers of paid and unpaid work and how more equal partnerships in families may help sustain fertility rates. The book examines policies to promote partnership, looking both at persistent shortcomings and progress achieved through reform since the mid-2000s. The book includes a set of policy recommendations designed to enable parents to share work and family responsibilities more equally.
Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development is the result of a project carried out by the European Union and the OECD Development Centre in ten partner countries: Armenia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, the Dominican Republic, Georgia, Haiti, Morocco and the Philippines. The project aimed to provide policy makers with evidence on the way migration influences specific sectors – labour market, agriculture, education, investment and financial services, and social protection and health – and, in turn, how sectoral policies affect migration. The report addresses four dimensions of the migration cycle: emigration, remittances, return and immigration.
The results of the empirical work confirm that migration contributes to the development of countries of origin and destination. However, the potential of migration is not yet fully exploited by the ten partner countries. One explanation is that policy makers do not sufficiently take migration into account in their respective policy areas. To enhance the contribution of migration to development, home and host countries therefore need to adopt a more coherent policy agenda to better integrate migration into development strategies, improve co-ordination mechanisms and strengthen international co-operation.
This report benchmarks digital government strategies in MENA countries against OECD standards and best practices. Using the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Digital Government Strategies as analytical framework, the report provides an in-depth look at the efforts made by Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia and the United Arab Emirates to use digital technologies strategically to support broader policy objectives. New technologies can help foster economic value creation, make institutions more inclusive, improve competitiveness and promote effective decision-making in the public sector. This report also assesses the use of ICTs to strengthen trust in government through greater openness and engagement, and suggests how MENA countries can better co-ordinate and steer the digital transformation of the public sector.
Italy is recovering from a deep and long recession. Structural reforms, accommodative monetary and fiscal conditions, and low commodity prices have helped the economy to turn the corner. The Jobs Act, part of a wide and ambitious structural reform programme, and social security contribution exemptions have improved the labour market and raised employment. Yet, the recovery remains weak and productivity continues to decline. Returning the banking system to health will be crucial to revive growth and private investment. More investment in infrastructure will be essential to raise productivity. The government has made significant progress on tackling structural impediments to growth and productivity. Yet public-administration inefficiencies, slow judicial processes, poorly designed regulation and weak competition still make it difficult to do business in Italy. Labour and capital resources are trapped in low-productivity firms, which hold down wages and well-being. Innovative start-ups and SMEs continue to suffer from difficult access to bank and equity finance. Literacy scores are low and job-skill mismatch is one of the highest among OECD countries, depressing earnings and well-being. Many workers are under-skilled in the jobs they hold, highlighting mismatches between workers skills and those required by employers. Improving the education system and labour market policies are crucial to raising real wages, job satisfaction and living standards. The Jobs Act and the Good School reform go in the right direction and need to be fully implemented.
SPECIAL FEATURES: RAISING INVESTMENT; ENHANCING SKILLS
The OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC) conducts periodic reviews of the individual development co-operation efforts of DAC members. The policies and programmes of each member are critically examined approximately once every five years.
This review assesses the performance of Poland, not just that of its development co-operation agency, and examines both policy and implementation. It takes an integrated, system-wide perspective on the development co-operation and humanitarian assistance activities of Poland.
Les Principaux indicateurs économiques (PIE) mensuels présentent des statistiques comparatives qui permettent d’avoir une vue d’ensemble des développements économiques les plus récents survenus dans les 35 pays de l’OCDE, dans la zone euro et dans certaines économies non membres. Ces statistiques clés à court terme constituent un outil d’analyse unique et indispensable pour les planificateurs du secteur privé, les économistes, les universitaires, les chercheurs et les étudiants. Ces indicateurs bénéficient de la présentation tabulaire la plus récente et la plus conviviale. Ils couvrent les comptes nationaux, les enquêtes de conjoncture, les opinions des ménages, les indicateurs avancés, le commerce de détail, la production, la construction, les prix, l’emploi, le chômage, les salaires, les finances, le commerce international et la balance des paiements.
Les entreprises peuvent apporter une contribution positive au développement social et économique lorsqu'elles engagent des parties prenantes telles que les populations locales dans leurs activités de planification et de prise de décision. L'utilité de cet engagement est particulièrement notable dans le secteur des industries extractives, auquel sont associées d'importantes incidences sociales, économiques et environnementales.
Le Guide de l'OCDE sur le devoir de diligence pour un engagement constructif des parties prenantes dans le secteur extractif propose des conseils pratiques aux entreprises des secteurs minier, pétrolier et gazier pour surmonter les difficultés liées au processus d’engagement des parties prenantes.
Ce Guide s’inscrit dans le cadre des travaux que mène l’OCDE pour créer des occasions concrètes d’application sectorielle des recommandations formulées dans les Principes directeurs de l'OCDE à l'intention des entreprises multinationales.
Pour en savoir plus sur les travaux de l'OCDE relatifs à l'engagement des parties prenantes dans le secteur extractif, consultez la page web https://mneguidelines.oecd.org/stakeholder-engagement-extractive-industries.htm