Publications


  • 9-septembre-2016

    Français

    Les conséquences économiques de la pollution de l'air extérieur

    Ce rapport fournit une évaluation approfondie des conséquences économiques de la pollution de l'air extérieur pour les décennies à venir. Il met l’accent sur l'impact en termes de mortalité et de morbidité ainsi que sur les changements dans les rendements des cultures qui ont été causés par des concentrations trop élevées de polluants. L'analyse s’appuie sur des simulations d’un modèle d’équilibre général multisectoriel, multirégional, et dynamique, pour évaluer les coûts marchands de la pollution atmosphérique. L'analyse aborde également les impacts sanitaires non marchands en utilisant des techniques d’évaluation de types « disposition à payer ».
    Le rapport constate que l'augmentation de l'activité économique entraînera une augmentation significative des émissions et des concentrations de polluants atmosphériques au niveau mondial, à moins que des politiques plus strictes ne soient adoptées. En conséquence, de graves répercussions sur la santé humaine et l'environnement sont à prévoir. Le rapport montre des projections de décès prématurés causés par la pollution de l'air extérieur au niveau mondial et régional pour 2015-2060, ainsi que les conséquences sur l'augmentation des maladies et la diminution des rendements agricoles. Les impacts marchands de la pollution de l'air extérieur devraient conduire à d'importants coûts économiques illustrés au niveau régional et sectoriel. Enfin, le rapport prévoit d'énormes coûts sociaux par an au niveau mondial si les gouvernements ne mettent pas en œuvre des politiques plus strictes.

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  • 9-September-2016

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Lithuania 2016

    The OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy offer a comprehensive assessment of the innovation system of individual OECD countries and partner economies, focusing on the role of government. They provide concrete recommendations on how to improve policies that affect innovation performance, including R&D policies. Each review identifies good practices from which other countries can learn.

  • 9-September-2016

    English

    Japan's Siting Process for the Geological Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste - An International Peer Review

    The Nuclear Energy Agency carried out an independent peer review of Japan’s siting process and criteria for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in May 2016. The review concluded that Japan’s site screening process is generally in accordance with international practices. As the goal of the siting process is to locate a site – that is both appropriate and accepted by the community – to host a geological disposal facility for high-level radioactive waste, the international review team emphasises in this report the importance of maintaining an open dialogue and interaction between the regulator, the implementer and the public. Dialogue should begin in the early phases and continue throughout the siting process. The international review team also underlines the importance of taking into account feasibility aspects when selecting a site for preliminary investigations, but suggests that it would be inappropriate to set detailed scientific criteria for nationwide screening at this stage. The team has provided extensive advisory remarks in the report as opportunities for improvement, including the recommendation to use clear and consistent terminology in defining the site screening criteria as it is a critical factor in a successful siting process.

  • 7-September-2016

    English

    SMEs in Libya's Reconstruction - Preparing for a Post-Conflict Economy

    The report is intended to contribute to the implementation of policies in a post-conflict Libya to promote private sector development. The report analyses the structural economic and framework conditions prevalent in Libya, highlights potential drivers of development and considers the role of SMEs and entrepreneurship promotion in driving post-conflict recovery. Based on international experience and practices, and considering the context of the country, the report identifies the necessary legal frameworks, institutions and policies for the promotion of SME and entrepreneurship. The document is part of a wider MENA Transition Fund project to support the design and implementation of SME policies in Libya.

  • 6-September-2016

    English

    Recruiting Immigrant Workers: The Netherlands 2016

    The Dutch labour migration system has undergone substantive changes in recent years. To induce a transition to more high-skilled migration, a programme based on salary thresholds has grown in volume while a programme based on work permits after a labour market test has shrunk. New programmes target international graduates either of Dutch educational institutions or of selected institutions abroad. Changes to immigration procedures have shifted responsibility to migrants' employers and have greatly reduced processing times. This review first examines the composition of labour migration to the Netherlands, in the context of present and expected demand in the Dutch labour market. Following a discussion of various programmes and procedures, the review assesses how labour migration contributes to the strategic development of sectors and to employment in regions. It then explores the determinants for the retention of high-skilled migrants and for the integration of international graduates into the Dutch labour market.

  • 2-septembre-2016

    Français

    Les conséquences économiques du changement climatique

    Ce rapport présente une nouvelle évaluation quantitative détaillée des conséquences du changement climatique sur la croissance économique dans les décennies à venir. Il explique dans quelles mesures le changement climatique affectera différents moteurs de la croissance, tels que la productivité du travail ou l’accumulation de capital physique, dans les différents secteurs à travers le monde. L’analyse sectorielle et régionale souligne que les impacts du changement climatique se feront ressentir dans tous les secteurs et toutes les régions. Toutefois, les effets les plus néfastes se manifesteront surtout dans les secteurs de la santé et de l’agriculture, avec des dommages particulièrement forts en Afrique et en Asie.

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  • 2-September-2016

    English

    Coal Information 2016

    Coal Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in the world coal sector, including 2015 provisional data. It provides a review of the world coal market in 2015, alongside a statistical overview of developments, which covers world coal production and coal reserves, coal demand by type, coal trade and coal prices. A detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of historical and current coal developments in the 34 OECD member countries, by region and individually is presented in tables and charts. Complete coal balances and coal trade data for selected years are presented on 22 major non-OECD coal-producing and -consuming countries, with summary statistics on coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions worldwide.

    Coal Information is one of a series of annual IEA stat ist ical publ ications on major energy sources; other reports are Electricity Information, Natural Gas Information, Oil Information and Renewables Information.

  • 31-August-2016

    English

    Education in Thailand - An OECD-UNESCO Perspective

    Thailand’s education system stands at a crossroads. Significant investment has widened access to education and the country performs relatively well in international assessments compared with its peers. But the benefits have not been universally distributed and Thailand has not received the return on its spending on education that it might have expected. This report encourages Thailand to focus on four priority areas to prepare students from all backgrounds for a fast-changing world. The first is to set clear, common standards for all students through a revised and improved curriculum. The second priority is to build capacity to reliably assess students across the full range of competencies needed for success in life and in learning. Third, Thailand needs to develop a holistic strategy to prepare teachers and school leaders to deliver education reform, including implementing the revised curriculum, and to tackle teaching shortages in the most deprived areas. The final challenge is to create a comprehensive information and communications technology strategy to equip all Thailand’s schools, teachers and students for the 21st century.

  • 30-août-2016

    Français

    Projet BEPS - Exposé des actions 2015

    Endiguer l’érosion de la base d’imposition et le transfert de bénéfices (BEPS) est une priorité absolue pour les pouvoirs publics des pays du monde entier. En 2013, les pays de l’OCDE et du G20 ont adopté un Plan d’action en 15 points, à l’élaboration duquel ils ont œuvré de concert et sur un pied d’égalité, pour lutter contre l’érosion de la base d’imposition et le transfert de bénéfices. Le Projet BEPS réalisé sous l’égide de l’OCDE et du G20, vise à assurer aux États des recettes budgétaires grâce à une fiscalité en phase avec l’évolution des activités économiques et la création de valeur, mais aussi à créer, dans le domaine de la fiscalité internationale, un ensemble unique de règles faisant l’objet d’un consensus pour combattre l’érosion de la base d’imposition et le transfert de bénéfices, et partant, à protéger l’assiette imposable tout en offrant aux contribuables une prévisibilité et une certitude accrues. L’un des axes majeurs de l’effort engagé est l’élimination de la double non-imposition. Les nouvelles règles qui doivent être adoptées à cet effet ne doivent toutefois pas entraîner l’application d’une double imposition, soumettre les contribuables à des obligations trop contraignantes ou instituer des restrictions faisant obstacle à des activités transnationales par ailleurs légitimes. Cet Exposé des actions offre un aperçu du projet BEPS et de ses résultats.

  • 30-August-2016

    English

    Promoting Well-being and Inclusiveness in Sweden

    Sweden has a remarkable track record in sustaining a high level of well-being of its citizens. The country performs above the OECD average in all dimensions of the OECD’s Better Life Index, and these good outcomes are typically shared widely across the population. Sweden is one of the leading countries in receiving refugees and a strong supporter of ambitious global goals to fight climate change and implement the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. However, for this success story to continue, the country needs to reverse the declining educational performance of its youth, speed up labour market integration of newly arrived immigrants and address infrastructure deficiencies, particularly in the housing sector. Also, Sweden’s high ambitions with respect to environmental protection call for further policy action to advance the transition to a low carbon and circular economy.

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