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Publications


  • 11-août-2020

    Français

    Les mesures de gouvernance publique face à la désinformation - Comment les principes de gouvernement ouvert peuvent éclairer les choix stratégiques

    Le présent document propose une approche globale au problème de la désinformation et examine à cette fin diverses mesures de gouvernance publique reposant sur les principes de transparence, d’intégrité, de redevabilité et d’association des parties prenantes qui fondent le gouvernement ouvert. L’auteur présente une analyse des évolutions profondes qui influent sur l’écosystème des médias et de l’information, en tout premier lieu l’essor des plateformes numériques. Se fondant sur les conséquences qu’entraîne cette mutation, il met l’accent sur quatre domaines d’intervention des pouvoirs publics : la communication publique au service d’un dialogue de meilleure qualité entre l’État et les citoyens ; les mesures directes visant à repérer et à combattre la désinformation ; les mesures juridiques et réglementaires ; et les politiques en matière de médias et de participation citoyenne à l’appui d’une amélioration des écosystèmes de l’information. Il présente en conclusion les dispositions que l’OCDE peut prendre pour constituer une base de données et appuyer l’action publique dans ce domaine.
  • 11-août-2020

    Français

  • 10-August-2020

    English

    Reassessing the regressivity of the VAT

    This paper reassesses the often-made conclusion that the VAT is regressive, drawing on tax microsimulation models constructed for an unprecedented 27 OECD countries. The paper first assesses the competing methodological approaches used in previous distributional studies, highlighting the distorting impact of savings patterns on cross-sectional analysis when VAT burdens are measured relative to income. As argued by IFS (2011), measuring VAT burdens relative to expenditure – thereby removing the influence of savings – is likely to provide a more meaningful picture of the distributional impact of the VAT. On this basis, the VAT is found to be either roughly proportional or slightly progressive in most of the 27 OECD countries examined. Nevertheless, results for a small number of countries highlight that broad-based VAT systems that have few reduced VAT rates or exemptions can produce a small degree of regressivity. Results also show that even a roughly proportional VAT can still have significant equity implications for the poor – potentially pushing some households into poverty. This emphasises the importance of ensuring the progressivity of the tax-benefit system as a whole in order to compensate poor households for the loss in purchasing power from paying VAT. In the broader context of the COVID-19 crisis, the findings of the paper suggest there may be scope in many countries for VAT reform to help address revenue needs, as this revenue may be generated with less significant distributional effects than previously thought. While standard VAT rates are high in many countries, OECD evidence shows that scope exists to broaden VAT bases. Nevertheless, any VAT increases, including VAT base broadening measures that impact the poor, should be accompanied by compensation measures for poorer households, such as targeted tax credits or benefit payments.
  • 10-August-2020

    English

    Remote online exams in higher education during the COVID-19 crisis

    Because of the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, most higher education institutions across the OECD decided to close their campuses. As a result, teaching and assessment activities have been conducted from a distance, generally online. Based on the literature and on the experiences of the international network of higher education institutions participating in the project on Fostering and Assessing Creativity and Critical Thinking of the OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI), this brief outlines possible short-term and long-term solutions for organising student examinations on line in the context of campus closures and social distancing measures. This policy brief explores the following questions: What are the challenges and solutions to designing and conducting end-of-term examinations on line following campus closures? What new forms of examinations could replace or supplement the mainstream methods in the future?
  • 6-August-2020

    English

    Corporate debt stress testing: A global analysis of non-financial corporations

    High-yield corporate and leveraged loans have grown substantially over the past decade. However, the COVID-19 pandemic means downside risks are rising alongside expectations of severe negative impacts on corporate earnings and economic growth. The proportion of leveraged corporate debt exposed to such downside risks has become a key concern. This paper assesses the magnitude of indebtedness of leveraged non-financial companies and identifies the share of debt related to the riskiest firms. A stress test analysis examines the sensitivity of corporate debt to potential macroeconomic and financial shocks. The results show a sharp deterioration in the credit quality of firms, particularly in the United States and Emerging Market Economies (EMEs). Under stressed conditions, all these countries, China included, would experience a sharp rise in the number of firms considered at risk or distressed due to deteriorating cash flows and the inability to make interest payments, thereby becoming more likely to default.
  • 6-August-2020

    English

    Museums and Local Development in Poland

    The OECD-ICOM Guide for Local Governments, Communities and Museums provides a framework for local and regional governments to assess and maximise the social and economic value of cultural heritage, and for museums to understand and strengthen their existing and potential linkages with the local economy and social fabric. This case study in Poland is based on nine museums of different size and ownership structure located in both large urban areas and rural municipalities. It explores opportunities for museums and local development in Poland along five dimensions: i) economic development, ii) urban design and community development, iii) culturally aware and creative societies, iv) inclusion, health and well-being, and v) mainstreaming the role of museums in local development.
  • 4-août-2020

    Français

    Enseignants débutants : Comment les soutenir et les orienter? - Données tirées de l’Enquête TALIS 2018

    Les enseignants débutants apportent une énergie et des idées nouvelles aux écoles et aux salles de classe qui pourraient améliorer l'environnement d'apprentissage des élèves, si elles sont correctement exploitées. Dans le même temps, les enseignants novices sont, par définition, inexpérimentés dans certains aspects des pratiques en classe et du travail scolaire. Comme pour toute autre profession, les enseignants novices ont besoin de temps, de soutien et de conseils pour améliorer leurs compétences et s'adapter aux tâches auxquelles ils sont régulièrement confrontés. Ainsi, fournir aux enseignants débutants un soutien adéquat dans leurs premières années est un défi majeur pour développer l'enseignement en tant que profession.
  • 3-August-2020

    English

    Key trends in development co-operation for national data and statistical systems

    This policy paper sheds light on current trends in development co-operation for data and statistical systems in developing countries. It analyses trends in funding through official development assistance as well as strategic priorities and modalities for providing support. It identifies different approaches to capacity development and discusses their strengths, opportunities and risks. The objectives of the research published in this paper are twofold: first, to understand key challenges to ensuring support is effective, owned by partners, aligned with their priorities and needs, and conducive to producing capacity and results that outlive specific projects and; second, with a view to identifying good practices, to provide insights on how Development Assistance Committee members support statistics and statistical capacity development in developing countries.
  • 3-August-2020

    English

    Optimising the operation and use of national research infrastructures

    This report presents a generic framework for improving the use and operation of national research infrastructures (RIs), which play a key role in enabling and developing research in all scientific domains and represent an increasingly large share of research investment. It includes two guiding models: one for portfolio management and one for user-base optimisation. These identify the key principles of an effective national RI portfolio management system and the factors that RI managers should consider with regards to optimising the user base of national RIs. Both guiding models account for the diversity of national systems and RI operation approaches. The report also contains a series of more generic policy recommendations and suggested actions for RI portfolio managers and RI managers.
  • 31-July-2020

    English

    Georgia 2020 - Energy Policy Review

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) conducts in-depth peer reviews of the energy policies of its members and non-member countries. This process supports a holistic approach to energy policy development and encourages the exchange of international best practices and experiences. This report is the first in-depth review conducted by the EU4Energy programme (implemented by the IEA and the European Union) in the 2019-2021 cycle. It updates and extends the analysis of energy policies in the countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia that the IEA conducted in 2015. Since the 2015 review, Georgia has made solid progress in improving both the security and sustainability of its energy supply. The country entered into the EU-Georgia Association Agreement in 2016 and become a Contracting party of the Energy Community Treaty in 2017. Since then, it has made significant legal and institutional reforms demonstrating the government’s commitment to align its energy sector with EU regulations for electricity and gas markets, security of supply, renewable energy, energy efficiency and statistics. The energy sector has been instrumental in establishing Georgia’s overall economic policy focused on creating a liberalised environment through minimal state interference, deregulation, privatisation, reduced and simplified licensing and taxation, and free trade, earning the country the reputation of a 'star reformer'. Taking advantage of its favourable geographical situation, Georgia plays an important role in the regional trade of electricity, oil and natural gas. Nevertheless, Georgia is still confronted with many challenges in its transition to a more secure, sustainable and affordable energy future. The government recognises most of them and is considering various measures to address them. There is room for the further strengthening of the country’s long-term energy strategy, raising institutional capacity and improving coordination between stakeholders to develop policies based on solid analysis of supply-demand trends and alternative scenario models. More efforts could be made to develop effective secondary legislation to accelerate the implementation of the EU energy acquis, and to gradually phase out implicit subsidies and cross-subsidies in the electricity and gas sectors. In this report, the IEA provides recommendations for further improvements of Georgia’s policies to help the country guide the transformation of its energy sector.
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