The report is intended to contribute to the implementation of policies in a post-conflict Libya to promote private sector development. The report analyses the structural economic and framework conditions prevalent in Libya, highlights potential drivers of development and considers the role of SMEs and entrepreneurship promotion in driving post-conflict recovery. Based on international experience and practices, and considering the context of the country, the report identifies the necessary legal frameworks, institutions and policies for the promotion of SME and entrepreneurship. The document is part of a wider MENA Transition Fund project to support the design and implementation of SME policies in Libya.
The Dutch labour migration system has undergone substantive changes in recent years. To induce a transition to more high-skilled migration, a programme based on salary thresholds has grown in volume while a programme based on work permits after a labour market test has shrunk. New programmes target international graduates either of Dutch educational institutions or of selected institutions abroad. Changes to immigration procedures have shifted responsibility to migrants' employers and have greatly reduced processing times. This review first examines the composition of labour migration to the Netherlands, in the context of present and expected demand in the Dutch labour market. Following a discussion of various programmes and procedures, the review assesses how labour migration contributes to the strategic development of sectors and to employment in regions. It then explores the determinants for the retention of high-skilled migrants and for the integration of international graduates into the Dutch labour market.
Ce rapport présente une nouvelle évaluation quantitative détaillée des conséquences du changement climatique sur la croissance économique dans les décennies à venir. Il explique dans quelles mesures le changement climatique affectera différents moteurs de la croissance, tels que la productivité du travail ou l’accumulation de capital physique, dans les différents secteurs à travers le monde. L’analyse sectorielle et régionale souligne que les impacts du changement climatique se feront ressentir dans tous les secteurs et toutes les régions. Toutefois, les effets les plus néfastes se manifesteront surtout dans les secteurs de la santé et de l’agriculture, avec des dommages particulièrement forts en Afrique et en Asie.
Coal Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in the world coal sector, including 2015 provisional data. It provides a review of the world coal market in 2015, alongside a statistical overview of developments, which covers world coal production and coal reserves, coal demand by type, coal trade and coal prices. A detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of historical and current coal developments in the 34 OECD member countries, by region and individually is presented in tables and charts. Complete coal balances and coal trade data for selected years are presented on 22 major non-OECD coal-producing and -consuming countries, with summary statistics on coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions worldwide.
Coal Information is one of a series of annual IEA stat ist ical publ ications on major energy sources; other reports are Electricity Information, Natural Gas Information, Oil Information and Renewables Information.
Thailand’s education system stands at a crossroads. Significant investment has widened access to education and the country performs relatively well in international assessments compared with its peers. But the benefits have not been universally distributed and Thailand has not received the return on its spending on education that it might have expected. This report encourages Thailand to focus on four priority areas to prepare students from all backgrounds for a fast-changing world. The first is to set clear, common standards for all students through a revised and improved curriculum. The second priority is to build capacity to reliably assess students across the full range of competencies needed for success in life and in learning. Third, Thailand needs to develop a holistic strategy to prepare teachers and school leaders to deliver education reform, including implementing the revised curriculum, and to tackle teaching shortages in the most deprived areas. The final challenge is to create a comprehensive information and communications technology strategy to equip all Thailand’s schools, teachers and students for the 21st century.
Endiguer l’érosion de la base d’imposition et le transfert de bénéfices (BEPS) est une priorité absolue pour les pouvoirs publics des pays du monde entier. En 2013, les pays de l’OCDE et du G20 ont adopté un Plan d’action en 15 points, à l’élaboration duquel ils ont œuvré de concert et sur un pied d’égalité, pour lutter contre l’érosion de la base d’imposition et le transfert de bénéfices. Le Projet BEPS réalisé sous l’égide de l’OCDE et du G20, vise à assurer aux États des recettes budgétaires grâce à une fiscalité en phase avec l’évolution des activités économiques et la création de valeur, mais aussi à créer, dans le domaine de la fiscalité internationale, un ensemble unique de règles faisant l’objet d’un consensus pour combattre l’érosion de la base d’imposition et le transfert de bénéfices, et partant, à protéger l’assiette imposable tout en offrant aux contribuables une prévisibilité et une certitude accrues. L’un des axes majeurs de l’effort engagé est l’élimination de la double non-imposition. Les nouvelles règles qui doivent être adoptées à cet effet ne doivent toutefois pas entraîner l’application d’une double imposition, soumettre les contribuables à des obligations trop contraignantes ou instituer des restrictions faisant obstacle à des activités transnationales par ailleurs légitimes. Cet Exposé des actions offre un aperçu du projet BEPS et de ses résultats.
Sweden has a remarkable track record in sustaining a high level of well-being of its citizens. The country performs above the OECD average in all dimensions of the OECD’s Better Life Index, and these good outcomes are typically shared widely across the population. Sweden is one of the leading countries in receiving refugees and a strong supporter of ambitious global goals to fight climate change and implement the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. However, for this success story to continue, the country needs to reverse the declining educational performance of its youth, speed up labour market integration of newly arrived immigrants and address infrastructure deficiencies, particularly in the housing sector. Also, Sweden’s high ambitions with respect to environmental protection call for further policy action to advance the transition to a low carbon and circular economy.
The data service contains energy balances for over 150 countries and regions. The figures are expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe) and in terajoules. Conversion factors used to calculate energy balances and indicators such as GDP and population are also provided. In general, the data are available for 1971 (1960 for OECD countries) to 2014, with preliminary estimates of 2015 production (and trade when available) for natural gas, primary coal and oil.
Definitions of products and flows, explanatory notes on the individual country data, indicators (including GDP, population, industrial production index and ratios calculated with the energy data) and net calorific values are also included.
The data service contains key energy statistics for over 150 countries and regions. Data are provided in original units for the different types of coal, oil, natural gas, renewables and waste, as well as for electricity and heat. In general, the data are available for 1971 (1960 for OECD countries) to 2014, with preliminary estimates of 2015 production (and trade when available) for natural gas, primary coal and oil.
Data are provided in original units for the different types of coal, oil, natural gas, renewables and waste, as well as for electricity and heat. In general, the data are available for 1960 to 2014.
The equal inclusion of women in economic life is a key driver of economic growth throughout the world, including the Pacific Alliance countries of Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Talent is lost, and future growth suffers, when women do not have the same opportunities as men to reach their full potential in the labour market. All countries of the world have work to do to advance the equality agenda, and Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru have much to do. While girls and women in the Pacific Alliance are progressing on the path to gender equality and inclusive growth, significant roadblocks remain.