Le Programme international de l’OCDE pour le suivi des acquis des élèves (PISA) cherche non seulement à évaluer ce que les élèves savent en sciences, en compréhension de l’écrit et en mathématiques, mais aussi à déterminer ce qu’ils sont capables de faire avec ces connaissances. Les résultats de l’enquête PISA révèlent la qualité et l’équité de l’apprentissage dans le monde entier, et offrent aux professionnels de l’éducation et aux responsables politiques la possibilité de découvrir les politiques et pratiques d’autres pays et de s’en inspirer. Vous avez entre les mains l’un des cinq volumes qui présentent les résultats de l’évaluation PISA 2015, la sixième édition de cette enquête triennale.
Le volume I, L’excellence et l’équité dans l’éducation, résume la performance des élèves en sciences, en compréhension de l’écrit et en mathématiques, et définit et mesure l’équité dans l’éducation. Il se concentre sur les attitudes des élèves à l’égard de l’apprentissage en sciences et analyse leur aspiration à embrasser une carrière scientifique. Il examine aussi l’évolution de la performance et de l’équité ces dernières années dans les pays et économies participant à l’enquête PISA.
Le volume II, Politiques et pratiques pour des établissements performants, examine les liens entre la performance des élèves et diverses caractéristiques des établissements et des systèmes d’éducation, notamment les ressources affectées à l’éducation, l’environnement d’apprentissage et les critères de sélection des élèves entre les établissements, les filières d’enseignement et les classes.
Le volume III, Le bien-être des élèves, décrit la relation entre les résultats scolaires des élèves de 15 ans et leur vie sociale et leurs attitudes à l’égard de l’apprentissage.
Le volume IV, La culture financière des élèves, analyse les connaissances et l’expérience des élèves dans les matières financières.
Le volume V, La résolution collaborative de problèmes, analyse la capacité des élèves à travailler à plusieurs pour la résolution de problèmes. Il examine aussi le rôle de l’éducation dans le développement de la capacité des jeunes à résoudre des problèmes en équipe.
Infrastructure poses many challenges, from technical and budgetary concerns to delivery and governance issues. But it is crucial for both productivity and inclusiveness. Businesses rely on modern infrastructure to remain competitive, while society depends on good infrastructure to ensure equal opportunity and equal access to services for citizens. Good governance of public infrastructure can thus yield substantial benefits for all. Based on a survey of 27 countries, this report provides an overview of current practices in infrastructure governance and presents practical tools to help policy makers better manage infrastructure.
Economic regulators are responsible for ensuring that infrastructure services are delivered efficiently, where competition on its own is unable to achieve this outcome. Based on a survey of 34 economic regulators covering 77 sectors and subsectors including energy, transport, communications and water, this report explores how economic regulators carry out this task, and suggests how this experience can be usefully applied in the governance of infrastructure more broadly.
The Review of Corporate Governance in Latvia was prepared as part of the process of Latvia’s accession to OECD Membership. The report describes the corporate governance setting for both listed companies and the state-owned sector (SOEs). The Review then examines the legal and regulatory framework and company practices to assess the degree to which the recommendations of the G20/OECD Principles of Corporate Governance and the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises have been implemented. The report finds that Latvia's framework for the corporate governance of listed companies is largely consistent with the Principles. However, the report recommends a series of measures to further strengthen the corporate governance framework, which could help to deepen its currently small capital market and attract investment. For SOEs, the report recognises considerable reforms undertaken during the accession review process to establish an ownership co-ordination unit and to begin re-establishing boards of directors (which had been abolished in 2009). The report calls for consolidation of these reforms and also stresses the importance of clarifying SOE objectives and strategies, and enhancing disclosure.
A System of Health Accounts 2011: Revised Edition provides an updated and systematic description of the financial flows related to the consumption of health care goods and services. As demands for information increase and more countries implement and institutionalise health accounts according to the system, the data produced are expected to be more comparable, more detailed and more policy relevant. It builds on the original OECD Manual, published in 2000, and the Guide to Producing National Health Accounts to create a single global framework for producing health expenditure accounts that can help track resource flows from sources to uses. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the OECD, WHO and the European Commission, and sets out in more detail the boundaries, the definitions and the concepts – responding to health care systems around the globe – from the simplest to the more complicated.
Higher education policy is the key to lifelong learning and this is particularly important as the ageing population is increasing in many countries. It is a major driver of economic competitiveness in an increasingly knowledge-driven global economy and it also brings social cohesion and well-being. Countries are increasingly aware that higher education institutions need to foster the skills required to sustain a globally competitive research base and improve knowledge dissemination to the benefit of society. Kazakhstan’s higher education system has made progress over the past ten years. However, there is scope for improvement in delivering labour-market relevant skills to Kazakhstanis, and in supporting economic growth through research and innovation.
In examining the higher education system in Kazakhstan, this report builds on a 2007 joint OECD/World Bank review: Reviews of National Policies for Education: Higher Education in Kazakhstan 2007. Each chapter presents an overview of progress made in the past decade across the main areas explored in the 2007 report. These include quality and relevance, access and equity, internationalisation, research and innovation, financing and governance. The report also examines policy responses to evolving dynamics in higher education and the wider socio-economic changes.
This first review of Mexico’s energy policies by the International Energy Agency comes at a momentous time for the country’s energy sector. The broad-based Energy Reform, beginning with the Constitutional changes of December 2013, has continued at a steady and impressive pace. Its reach and scope amounts to one of the most ambitious energy system transformations in decades. The IEA applauds the government of Mexico for the progress made to date.
Starting from a largely closed and monopoly-driven energy market, the reform has taken concrete steps to harness market forces to attract investments and increase production while ensuring transparency and rule of law, improving energy security and strengthening the environmental sustainability of the energy sector.
Some policy areas, such as promoting competition and redesigning emergency preparedness, will have to remain a priority. The transition to open energy markets should continue in a transparent manner, and with regulatory certainty. The new roles and responsibilities for the public and private entities, in particular for energy supply emergencies and energy data collection, should be defined well. It is also critical to ensure sufficient resources for the several new or strengthened regulatory authorities.
For the long term, as Mexico’s population, cities and economy are projected to grow strongly, a cross-sectoral approach is required to limit the increase in energy demand and energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Mexico and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure, sustainable and affordable energy future.
The northern sparsely populated areas (NSPA) of Finland, Norway and Sweden are becoming increasingly important to the geopolitical and economic interests of these countries and the European Union. These regions have unique geographical characteristics - low population density and a harsh climate - and face specific challenges due to an ageing population, long distances from markets, and high-cost land transport. However, high productivity growth is possible in low-density regions. This report sets out policy recommendations at cross-border, national and regional scales to enhance prosperity and well-being across the NSPA. This includes closer co-operation with national governments to address shared challenges and opportunities such as improving east-west transport connections and reducing occupational and skills barriers to labour mobility, and addressing barriers to business growth such as access to finance.
Giving people better opportunities to participate actively in the labour market improves well-being. It also helps countries to cope with rapid population ageing by mobilising more fully each country’s potential labour resources. Weak labour market attachment of some groups in society reflects a range of barriers to working or moving up the jobs ladder. This report on Australia is the third country study published in a series of reports looking into strategies to encourage greater labour market participation of all groups in society with a special focus on the most disadvantaged. Labour market and activation policies are well developed in Australia. However, the gap in employment rates is still considerable for some groups of the population, including women with young children, disadvantaged youth, people with disability, people with mental health problems and the indigenous population. This report discusses the size of the gap and the - often multiple - barriers underlying low labour market participation of these groups, and it provides a non-exhaustive number of good practice policies and measures from other OECD countries which could guide Australia's policy development in the coming years.