Publications


  • 18-November-2016

    English

    OECD Public Governance Reviews: Spain 2016 - Linking Reform to Results for the Country and its Regions

    In 2014, Spain launched a set of administrative reforms called “The CORA reform” as part of broader fiscal reforms. The CORA was a comprehensive and ambitious programme to create conditions for a more transparent public administration closer to citizens and businesses. The reforms were the subject of an OECD Public Governance Review undertaken in 2014. This progress report, the first of its kind, analyses how the OECD recommendations in the 2014 review have been implemented so far at the national level. In addition, it describes how the autonomous communities Galicia and Murcia have implemented the recommendations, and discusses the challenges that remain for achieving effective co-ordination and closer collaboration between the central and the regional levels in the area of public sector reform.

  • 15-November-2016

    English

    Improving Economic Instruments for Water Resources Management in the Republic of Buryatia (Lake Baikal Basin)

    A major challenge facing the Republic of Buryatia, subject of the Russian Federation, is how to balance the task of protecting Lake Baikal – a unique water object and ecological system included in the UNESCO list of World Natural Heritage Areas – with the need for dynamic and sustainable socio-economic development of the republic.  This requires streamlining and improving water policy jointly with economic, administrative, information and other policy instruments. The recommendations in this report aim to help achieve this objective. They include the introduction of abstraction charges for irrigation water as a  natural resource; enhancement of state support to the water sector; and improvement of economic instruments for managing risks of water-related hazards (such as compulsory insurance and differentiated land tax rates in flood prone areas). A few innovative instruments are also recommended for pilot testing such as establishing limits for discharges of certain hazardous substances in a pilot area (e.g. Selenga river basin) and progressive development of market for tradable quotas for discharges of the “capped” pollutants; and introducing a charge (tax) on toxic agricultural chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, etc.) and synthetic detergents so that to create incentives for the reduction of diffuse water pollution.

  • 14-November-2016

    English

    Private Sector Engagement for Sustainable Development - Lessons from the DAC

    Members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) are increasingly working with the private sector in development co-operation to realise sustainable development outcomes. To learn from this experience, the DAC introduced a peer learning review on working with and through the private sector in development co-operation. Private Sector Engagement for Sustainable Development: Lessons from the DAC examines the politics, policies and institutions behind private sector engagement, the focus and delivery of private sector engagements, private sector engagement portfolios, effective partnership and thematic issues including risk, leverage and ensuring results. Drawing on the practical experiences of DAC members, the report highlights good practice, provides a typology of private sector engagement and outlines key lessons. It highlights the importance of aligning private sector engagements to overall development co-operation strategies and aid effectiveness principles. It also looks at investing in institutional capacities, developing a suite of flexible mechanisms for private sector engagement, and adopting appropriate systems to monitor, evaluate and report on the results of partnerships with the private sector.

  • 14-November-2016

    English

    OECD Reviews of School Resources: Denmark 2016

    The effective use of school resources is a policy priority across OECD countries. The OECD Reviews of School Resources explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education.
    The series considers four types of resources: financial resources, such as public funding of individual schools; human resources, such as teachers, school leaders and education administrators; physical resources, such as location, buildings and equipment; and other resources, such as learning time.
    This series offers timely policy advice to both governments and the education community. It includes both country reports and thematic studies.

  • 14-November-2016

    English

    Engaging Public Employees for a High-Performing Civil Service

    How can governments reduce workforce costs while ensuring civil servants remain engaged and productive? This report addresses this question, using evidence from the 2014 OECD Survey on Managing Budgeting Constraints: Implications for HRM and Employment in Central Public Administration. The results clearly illustrate the complex challenges facing civil services, such as how to reduce size and cost while still attracting and retaining high-calibre professional talent. The first part of this report shows that the pressure on central public administrations to reduce costs has required many OECD countries to make cuts that have likely resulted in negative impacts on the workforce regarding trust, motivation and commitment. Overall, 67% of countries surveyed have implemented a pay freeze since 2008. The second part explores how a number of OECD countries are using employee surveys as a leadership tool to better manage employee engagement, which is linked to better job performance, organisational commitment, productivity and public sector innovation. Employee engagement can be a powerful counter balance to austerity-driven measures.

  • 11-November-2016

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Malaysia 2016

    The OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy offer a comprehensive assessment of the innovation system of individual OECD countries and partner economies, focusing on the role of government and concrete recommendations to boost innovation performance and R&D policies.
    While Malaysia successfully transformed its economy from agriculture and mining towards manufacturing and more recently services, it is currently facing an economic slowdown and new competition. Mobilising new sources of growth will allow Malaysia to respond to these challenges and re-energise its economy through innovation-driven productivity gains.

     

  • 10-November-2016

    English

    Innovation, Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability in the United States

    The US food and agriculture sector is innovative, competitive and export-oriented. Changes in national and global demand offer further opportunities for US agri-food products, although climate change and other resource constraints could create additional challenges, in particular in some regions. Maintaining high productivity growth, while improving the sustainable use of resources will require further innovation. In a policy environment generally favourable to investment  and innovation, the strong US agricultural innovation system is expected to continue to create innovations that will be widely adopted, to the extent that these can be widely accepted.

     

  • 10-November-2016

    English

    Mexico Energy Outlook

    Mexico is recasting its entire energy system, in line with a far-reaching Energy Reform package adopted by the government in 2013. How might the multiple changes being implemented today change the energy scene of tomorrow?

    This analysis provides a comprehensive assessment of Mexico’s energy demand and supply outlook to 2040.

    The report:

    • Maps out the implications of the Reforma Energética across the energy economy.
    • Explores the ambition of a reformed power market to meet rising demand, while tapping Mexico’s abundant renewable resources and reducing the costs of power supply.
    • Assesses how and when the new upstream bid rounds can turn around today’s declines in oil and gas output
    • Identifies the challenges that remain, while also quantifying the value of Mexico’s energy transformation in a “No Reform Case”.
  • 10-November-2016

    English

    Urban Green Growth in Dynamic Asia

    The Urban Green Growth in Dynamic Asia project explores how to promote green growth in cities in Asia, examining policies and governance practices that encourage environmental sustainability and competitiveness in a rapidly expanding economy. This synthesis report presents the results of case studies along with practical policy recommendations, reflecting the local contexts of Southeast Asia. While Southeast Asian cities are affected by a range of economic, infrastructure, environmental and social challenges, ongoing rapid development offers opportunities to shift towards greener growth models. The concept of urban green growth can be a powerful vector of sustainable development, by emphasising the existence and potential of co-benefits between economic and environmental performance.

  • 9-November-2016

    English

    Energy, Climate Change and Environment - 2016 Insights

    The historic Paris Agreement on climate change sets the course for a fundamental transformation of the global economy over the next decades. The Agreement’s overarching goal of limiting global average temperature rise to “well below 2°C” will entail profound changes in the global energy system. Achieving the deep cuts in global carbon emissions that this vision requires is no small task given the enormous challenge of implementing – and eventually exceeding – current country climate pledges. This publication examines key sectors, technologies, and policy measures that will be central in the transition to a lowcarbon energy system. It addresses the following questions:

    • What are the roles of coal and gas in meeting the stringent decarbonisation requirements for the power sector consistent with IEA modelling of global climate goals?
    • What are moderate carbon prices accomplishing in the electricity sector, and how can they be helpful as part of a package of other policies?
    • Where are the opportunities for expanding renewables and energy efficiency, and what policies and regulatory frameworks are needed to boost these low-carbon energy sources?
    • How can state-owned companies, which produce a large share of global GHG emissions but are also major developers of clean energy, be encouraged to play a more effective role in the energy transition?

    This report also looks at building climate resilience in the energy sector, and the use of tracking tools and metrics to monitor the progress of energy sector decarbonisation. Finally, it provides global energy and emissions data, including interregional comparisons and in-depth analysis for ten regions.

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