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Publications


  • 19-October-2020

    English

    Iron and Steel Technology Roadmap - Towards more sustainable steelmaking

    Steel is vital to modern economies and so over the coming decades global demand for steel is expected to grow to meet rising social and economic welfare needs. Meeting this demand presents challenges for the iron and steel sector as it seeks to plot a more sustainable pathway while remaining competitive. The sector is currently responsible for about 8% of global final energy demand and 7% of energy sector CO2 emissions (including process emissions). However, through innovation, low-carbon technology deployment and resource efficiency, iron and steel producers have a major opportunity to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, develop more sustainable products and enhance their competitiveness. This report explores the technologies and strategies necessary for the iron and steel sector to pursue a pathway compatible with the IEA’s broader vision of a more sustainable energy sector. Considering both the challenges and the opportunities, it analyses the key technologies and processes that would enable substantial CO2 emission reductions in the sector. It also assesses the potential for resource efficiency, including increased reuse, recycling and demand reduction. Realising this more sustainable trajectory will require co-ordinated efforts from key stakeholders, including steel producers, governments, financial partners and the research community. As such, the publication concludes with an outline of priority actions, policies and milestones for these stakeholders to accelerate progress towards zero emissions from the iron and steel sector.
  • 19-octobre-2020

    Français

    L’innovation au service du développement - Enseignements du Comité d’aide au développement de l’OCDE

    La communauté de la coopération au développement doit innover pour relever les défis mondiaux à venir. Bien qu'elle ait fait ses preuves en matière de partenariats, d'instruments de financement et de technologies innovants, ces réussites ne sont pas suffisantes pour atteindre les objectifs de développement durable. Ce rapport synthétise les enseignements tirés d'un exercice d'apprentissage entre pairs du Comité d'aide au développement de l'OCDE sur la manière dont les efforts d'innovation peuvent être renforcés, individuellement et collectivement, pour réussir la mise en œuvre du Programme à l’horizon 2030. Le rapport s'articule autour de trois blocs – stratégie, gestion et culture ; organisation et collaboration ; et processus d'innovation – et fournit des recommandations sur la manière dont l'innovation peut profiter au mieux aux populations pauvres et vulnérables du monde entier.
  • 18-October-2020

    English

    Guidance Document on Emission Scenario Documents

    This Guidance Document intends to provide an introduction to Emission Scenario Documents (ESDs) and thereby, to facilitate their development and use in Member countries and at the OECD level. It is also expected that this Guidance Document could contribute to the increase of consistency of emission scenario documents at various levels (e.g., national, regional, international).
  • 17-October-2020

    English

    Country-by-Country Reporting – Compilation of Peer Review Reports (Phase 3) - Inclusive Framework on BEPS: Action 13

    Under the Action 13 Minimum Standard, jurisdictions have committed to foster tax transparency by requesting the largest multinational enterprise groups (MNE Groups) to provide the global allocation of their income, taxes and other indicators of the location of economic activity. This unprecedented information on MNE Groups’ operations across the world will boost tax authorities’ risk-assessment capabilities. The Action 13 Minimum Standard has been translated into specific terms of reference and a methodology for the peer review process. The peer review of the Action 13 Minimum Standard is proceeding in stages with three annual reviews in 2017, 2018 and 2019. The phased review process follows the phased implementation of CbC Reporting. Each annual peer review process will therefore focus on different aspects of the three key areas under review: the domestic legal and administrative framework, the exchange of information framework, and the confidentiality and appropriate use of CbC reports. This third annual peer review report reflects the outcome of the third review which considered all aspects of implementation. It contains the review of 131 jurisdictions which provided legislation or information pertaining to the implementation of CbC Reporting.
  • 15-October-2020

    English

    Sustainable Reintegration of Returning Migrants - A Better Homecoming

    For many OECD countries, how to ensure the safe and dignified return to their origin countries of migrants who do not have grounds to remain is a key question. Alongside removal, return and reintegration assistance have become an integral part of the response. Development cooperation is expanding its activity to support the capacity of countries of origin to reintegrate all returning migrants. Sustainable Reintegration of Returning Migrants: A Better Homecoming reports the results of a multi-country peer review project carried out by the OECD, with support from the German Corporation for International Cooperation (GIZ) on behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). It examines factors that can help improve the sustainability of reintegration at the individual level and at the programme level in countries of destination and origin. The report examines how casework and community-based programmes can increase uptake and improve outcomes. It identifies key elements of an effective individual reintegration programme, including outreach and counselling, case management and referral, and partnerships. The report makes proposals about how to improve programme design, evaluation, and monitoring, indicating areas where countries could co-operate more in implementation of programmes and in coordination with origin countries.
  • 15-October-2020

    English

    Education in the Digital Age - Healthy and Happy Children

    The COVID-19 pandemic was a forceful reminder that education plays an important role in delivering not just academic learning, but also in supporting physical and emotional well-being. Balancing traditional 'book learning' with broader social and personal development means new roles for schools and education more generally. This volume is part of a series that examines the intersections between education, well-being and digital technologies. Complementing the first volume Educating 21st Century Children: Emotional Well-Being in the Digital Age, this volume turns the spotlight on physical health and well-being. It explores the important role of play and risk-taking in learning. It examines the 'pursuit of perfection' and the impact on children’s lives, whether it be physical, cognitive or academic. It highlights important efforts countries have made to tackle inequality and protect and empower students in both physical and digital environments. It ends with a look at the pending agenda, underscoring the role of partnerships, policy and protection.
  • 15-October-2020

    English

    Non-cognitive characteristics and academic achievement in Southeast Asian countries based on PISA 2009, 2012, and 2015

    Non-cognitive characteristics of students in four Southeast Asian countries – Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Viet Nam – were reviewed based on the PISA 2009, 2012, and 2015 data. Overall, students in this region demonstrated similarities with respect to their non-cognitive dispositions such as learning habits, approaches to learning, motivation for school subject matters and self-beliefs about their abilities. The non-cognitive characteristics that were most prevalent in the region included enjoyment and instrumental motivation to learn, which were evidenced by the indices of intrinsicmotivation for mathematics (INTMAT), instrumental motivation for mathematics (INSTMOT), enjoyment in learning of science (JOYSCIE), and instrumental motivation in learning science (INSTSCIE). However, these variables were not strong predictors of student achievement in this region. The review also revealed that the best non-cognitive predictors of student achievement were metacognitive awareness (METASUM and UNDREM) for reading achievement; self-efficacy, self-concept, and anxiety (MATHEFF, SCMAT, and ANXMAT) for mathematics achievement; and environmental awareness and epistemological beliefs (ENVAWARE and EPIST) for science achievement. These variables were also the best predictors, on average, across all PISA participants and economies. However, some region-specific non-cognitive predictors were also noted. These were intrinsic motivation (INTMAT) in Malaysia; perseverance (PERSEV) in Thailand; and mathematics intentions (MATINTFC)in Viet Nam. Overall, the similarities found in the non-cognitive characteristics among Southeast Asian students suggest that (a) regional collaboration in designing the educational strategies may be beneficial and that (b) an implementation of regional questionnaires in future PISA surveys may be useful to gain an in-depth understanding of achievement-related factors in this region.
  • 15-October-2020

    English

    A survey of GHG mitigation policies for the agriculture, forestry and other land use sector

    In light of the urgency for policy action to address climate change, this report provides the first detailed global catalogue of targets and policies for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector. It covers 20 countries which collectively account for nearly half of the world’s AFOLU emissions. Most of these countries have recently set targets within their AFOLU sector as part of national climate mitigation strategies and commitments, although these targets are only legally-binding for two countries. However, policies to incentivise emission reductions and achieve these targets still need to be developed. Consequently, policy efforts will need to intensify for the AFOLU sector to contribute effectively to limiting global temperature increases to well below 2°C, and especially to meet the more ambitious 1.5°C target of the Paris Agreement.
  • 15-October-2020

    English

    Broad-based Innovation Policy for All Regions and Cities

    This publication summarises the main findings of a series of high-level expert workshops, organised with support by the European Commission, to deepen the understanding how OECD countries can move towards a broad‑based form of innovation policy for regions and cities. Weaknesses in technology and knowledge diffusion are weighing on productivity growth and innovation in OECD countries, particularly in firms that are distant from the technological frontier (global or national). This in turn weakens their capacity to meet future challenges and undermines inclusive growth. This report examines where current tools for innovation policy are too narrowly focused, targeting mainly research and development as well as science and technology-based interventions. It seeks to help empower firms to benefit from global trends and technological change, in order to better adapt to the different capacity and innovation eco‑systems across regions and cities.
  • 14-October-2020

    English

    Digital Government Index - 2019 results

    This paper presents the overall rankings, results and key policy messages of the 2019 OECD Digital Government Index (DGI) and provides a detailed analysis of the results for each of the dimensions of the OECD Digital Government Policy Framework. The DGI measures the maturity level of digital government strategies in OECD member and partner countries based on evidence gathered through the Survey on Digital Government 1.0. Findings show the promising yet modest progress towards robust digital governments, and encourage governments to step up efforts to use digital technologies and data strategically for user-driven public services. The paper highlights how the DGI can support the design, implementation and monitoring of digital government policies and practices, which, in turn, help public sector organisations better respond to citizens’ needs.
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