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Publications


  • 12-June-2019

    English

    Risk Governance Scan of Kazakhstan

    This report presents the governance framework in Kazakhstan for managing disaster risks. A wide range of disaster risks are present throughout the national territory, primarily floods, landslides, avalanches, but also extreme cold and heatwaves. The report reviews how the central government sets up a national strategy to manage these disaster risks, and how a national risk governance framework is formulated and executed. It examines the role of the private sector and other non-governmental actors in contributing to resilience at a national and subnational level. 
  • 12-June-2019

    English

    Risk Governance Scan of Colombia

    Colombia has launched an ambitious reform to improve its risk governance and boost resilience to disasters. This OECD Disaster Risk Governance Scan reviews Colombia’s progress in implementing the reform against the 2014 OECD Recommendation on the Governance of Critical Risks. The report identifies success factors and good practices in implementing the disaster risk reform agenda, focusing on central government policies and their implementation, and provides a set of recommendations to strengthen Colombia’s efforts in the future.
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  • 12-June-2019

    English

    OECD Development Co-operation Peer Reviews: Sweden 2019

    The OECD's Development Assistance Committee (DAC) conducts periodic reviews of the individual development co-operation efforts of DAC members. The policies and programmes of each DAC member are critically examined approximately once every five years. DAC peer reviews assess the performance of a given member, not just that of its development co-operation agency, and examine both policy and implementation. They take an integrated, system-wide perspective on the development co-operation and humanitarian assistance activities of the member under review.This review commends Sweden for its consistently generous levels of official development assistance and its global development leadership on peace and conflict prevention, environmental sustainability and gender equality. It also welcomes Sweden’s strong focus on and comprehensive toolbox for leaving no one behind. The review suggests that Sweden could benefit from consolidating its development co-operation policy framework and further enhancing the connections between its country, regional and thematic co-operation strategies.
  • 11-June-2019

    English

    Artificial Intelligence in Society

    Today, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is transforming societies and economies and the AI landscape has evolved significantly from 1950 when Alan Turing first posed the question of whether machines can think. AI promises to generate productivity gains, improve well-being and help address global challenges, such as climate change, resource scarcity and health crises. Yet, as AI applications are adopted around the world, their use raises questions and challenges related to human values, fairness, human determination, privacy, safety and accountability, among others. This report helps build a shared understanding of AI in the present and near-term. It maps economic and social impacts of AI technologies and their applications, and identifies their applications and major policy considerations. The report also provides an overview of the current AI policy landscape, including AI initiatives from governments and other stakeholders at national and international levels.
  • 10-juin-2019

    Français

    Sous pression : la classe moyenne en perte de vitesse

    Les ménages de la classe moyenne, qui ont le sentiment d’être laissés de côté, mettent en question les retombées de la mondialisation. Dans de nombreux pays de l’OCDE, en effet, les revenus intermédiaires ont moins progressé que le revenu moyen ; pire, dans quelques pays, ils n’ont pas augmenté du tout. Il est vrai que la technologie a automatisé un certain nombre de métiers moyennement qualifiés qui étaient occupés il y a quelques dizaines d’années encore par des travailleurs de la classe moyenne. Le coût de certains biens et services, comme le logement, qui sont essentiels au mode de vie de la classe moyenne, a en outre augmenté plus rapidement que les revenus d’activité et l’inflation globale. Dans ce contexte, les classes moyennes ont vu leur capacité d’épargne diminuer et, dans certains cas, elles se sont même endettées. Le présent rapport apporte un éclairage sur les multiples pressions subies par la classe moyenne. Il analyse les tendances chez les ménages à revenu intermédiaire dans diverses dimensions telles que l’emploi, la consommation, la santé et l’endettement, ainsi que les perceptions et les attitudes sociales. Il examine en outre diverses initiatives visant à répondre aux préoccupations soulevées par la classe moyenne, notamment la protection du niveau de vie et de la sécurité financière de la classe moyenne face aux défis économiques.
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  • 6-June-2019

    English

    The Road to Integration - Education, Migration and Social Cohesion

    Migration has been at the centre of policy debates across the OECD in recent years, largely because of the refugee crisis. This synthesis report identifies eight pillars of policy-making that the Strength through Diversity project has revealed to be crucial in order for education systems to effectively support newcomers. For each pillar, the report details a set of principles driving the design and implementation of system-level policies and school-level practices. These pillars: 1. consider the heterogeneity of immigrant populations, 2. develop approaches to promote the overall well-being of immigrants, 3. address the unique needs of refugee students, 4. ensure that motivation translates into a key asset for immigrant communities, 5. organise resources to reduce the influence of socio-economic status on the outcomes of immigrants, 6. provide comprehensive language support, 7. build the capacity of teachers to deal with migration-induced diversity, and 8. break down barriers to social cohesion while ensuring effective service delivery.
  • 6-June-2019

    English

    Unpacking E-commerce - Business Models, Trends and Policies

    As digital transformation has accelerated, the e-commerce landscape has become increasingly dynamic. New players have emerged; established actors have taken on new roles; some barriers to e-commerce at the firm, individual and country levels have been overcome, while others have emerged. Innovative business models have transformed buyer-seller relationships and pushed out the frontier of what is possible to buy and sell on line. This report explores e-commerce developments, trends and business models, and offers new insights on the policies needed to exploit the opportunities and mitigate the challenges of unlocking the potential of e-commerce for all. Innovative business models have transformed buyer-seller relationships and pushed out the frontier of what is possible to buy and sell on line. This report explores e-commerce developments, trends and business models, and offers new insights on the policies needed to exploit the opportunities and mitigate the challenges of unlocking the potential of e-commerce for all.
  • 4-June-2019

    English

    OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: North Macedonia

    How can assessment and evaluation policies work together more effectively to improve student outcomes in primary and secondary schools? The country reports in this series analyse major issues facing evaluation and assessment policy to identify improvements that can be made to enhance the quality, equity and efficiency of school education.The Republic of North Macedonia has made remarkable progress in expanding access to education and strengthening institutional capacity. Yet, the majority of young Macedonians leave school without mastering the basic competencies for life and work and students’ background continues to influence performance. This review, developed in cooperation with UNICEF, provides North Macedonia with recommendations to help strengthen its evaluation and assessment system, by moving towards a system where assessment provides students with helpful feedback to improve learning. It will be of interest to North Macedonia, as well as other countries looking to make more effective use of their evaluation and assessment system to improve quality and equity, and result in better outcomes for all students.
  • 3-June-2019

    English

    Talent Abroad: A Review of Romanian Emigrants

    In recent years, Romania has undergone major economic, social and political transformations. Given the significant emigration of the Romanian population and the recognition of the contributions of the diaspora, Romanian authorities are seeking to better understand this pool of talent residing abroad, which has great potential to contribute to the economic and social development of Romania. This review provides the first comprehensive portrait of the Romanian diaspora in OECD countries. By profiling Romanian emigrants, this review aims to strengthen knowledge about this community and thus help to consolidate the relevance of the policies deployed by Romania towards its emigrants.
  • 2-June-2019

    English

    Leeks

    This brochure is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the Leeks Standard. This brochure illustrates the standard text and demonstrates the quality parameters on high quality photographs. Thus, it is a valuable tool for the inspection authorities, professional bodies and traders interested in international trade of leeks. Cette brochure est publiée dans le cadre du Régime pour l’Application de normes internationales pour les fruits et legumes établi par l’OCDE en 1962. Elle fournit des notes explicatives et des illustrations en vue de faciliter l’interprétation commune des normes en vigueur pour les poireaux. Elle décrit les paramètres qualitatifs par des photographies de haute qualité. Elle constitue par conséquent un outil précieux pour les autorités de contrôle, les organes professionnels et les négociants qui manifestent leur intérêt pour le commerce international des poireaux.
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