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Publications


  • 23-September-2019

    English

    OECD Territorial Reviews: Hamburg Metropolitan Region, Germany

    With about 8% of national territory, the Hamburg Metropolitan Region (HMR) is the second largest in Germany. In the first OECD Territorial Review to cover Germany, the HMR is examined under the lens of its competitiveness, innovation, and sustainable urban and regional development.
  • 23-September-2019

    English

    Digital Opportunities for Better Agricultural Policies

    Recent digital innovations provide opportunities to deliver better policies for the agriculture sector by helping to overcome information gaps and asymmetries, lower policy-related transaction costs, and enable people with different preferences and incentives to work better together. Drawing on ten illustrative case studies and unique new data gathered via an OECD questionnaire on agri-environmental policy organisations' experiences with digital tools, this report explores opportunities to improve current agricultural and agri-environmental policies, and to deliver new, digitally enabled and information-rich policy approaches. It also considers challenges that organisations may face to make greater use of digital tools for policy, as well as new risks which increased use of digital tools may bring. The report provides practical advice on how policy makers can address challenges and mitigate risks to ensure digital opportunities for policy are realised in practice. Finally, the report briefly considers the broader regulatory and policy environment underpinning digitalisation of the agriculture sector, with the view to ensuring that use of digital tools for agricultural and agri-environmental policy remains coherent with the digitalisation of agriculture more generally.
  • 23-September-2019

    English

    The Supply of Medical Isotopes - An Economic Diagnosis and Possible Solutions

    This report explores the main reasons behind the unreliable supply of Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) in health-care systems and policy options to address the issue. Tc-99m is used in 85% of nuclear medicine diagnostic scans performed worldwide – around 30 million patient examinations every year. These scans allow diagnoses of diseases in many parts of the human body, including the skeleton, heart and circulatory system, and the brain. Medical isotopes are subject to radioactive decay and have to be delivered just-in-time through a complex supply chain. However, ageing production facilities and a lack of investment have made the supply of Tc-99m unreliable. This report analyses the use and substitutability of Tc-99m in health care, health-care provider payment mechanisms for scans, and the structure of the supply chain. It concludes that the main reasons for unreliable supply are that production is not economically viable and that the structure of the supply chain prevents producers from charging prices that reflect the full costs of production and supply.
  • 23-September-2019

    English

    Waste Management and the Circular Economy in Selected OECD Countries - Evidence from Environmental Performance Reviews

    This report provides a cross-country review of waste, materials management and circular economy policies in selected OECD countries, drawing on OECD’s Environmental Performance Reviews during the period 2010-17. It presents the main achievements in the countries reviewed, along with common trends and policy challenges, and provides insights into the effectiveness and efficiency of waste, materials management and circular economy policy frameworks. As the selected reviews were published over a seven-year period, information for some countries may be more recent than for others. Nevertheless, the policy recommendations emerging from the reviews may provide useful lessons for other OECD countries and partner economies.
  • 20-September-2019

    English

    Chicory

    This brochure is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and high quality photographs to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the Chicory standard. It is thus a valuable tool for the inspection authorities, professional bodies and traders interested in international trade of Chicory.
  • 18-septembre-2019

    Français

    Perspectives des migrations internationales 2019

    L'édition 2019 des Perspectives des migrations internationales analyse les évolutions récentes des mouvements et des politiques migratoires dans les pays de l'OCDE et dans quelques économies non-OCDE. Il examine également l'évolution de la situation des immigrés sur le marché du travail dans les pays de l'OCDE. Le rapport comprend deux chapitres spéciaux, l'un sur la contribution des migrations temporaires au marché du travail dans les pays de l'OCDE et le second sur les effets de long terme de la présence des membres de la famille sur l'intégration. Le rapport comprend également des notes par pays et une annexe statistique.
  • 18-September-2019

    English

    Accelerating Climate Action - Refocusing Policies through a Well-being Lens

    Insufficient progress in climate change mitigation is driving the climate system into unchartered territory with severe projected consequences. This report builds on the OECD Well-being Framework and applies a new perspective that analyses synergies and trade-offs, and creates two-way alignment between climate change mitigation and broader well-being goals across the five economic sectors (electricity, heavy industry, residential, surface transport, and agriculture) that are responsible for more than 60% of global greenhouse gas emissions.Limiting climate risks is fundamental to our collective well-being, and there are synergies between mitigation policy and other well-being goals which can be leveraged around jobs, income, health, education, wider environmental quality and the resources needed to sustain our livelihoods through time. At the same time, concerns about issues such as affordability of energy and the impact of climate policies on jobs need to be taken into account to counter growing economic and social inequalities within and between countries. The report argues that reframing climate policies using a well-being lens is necessary for making visible such synergies and trade-offs; allowing decision-makers to increase the former and anticipate, manage and minimise the latter. This requires us to rethink societal goals in terms of well-being, reframe our measures of progress and refocus policy-making accordingly.
  • 18-September-2019

    English

    World Energy Statistics 2019

    World Energy Statistics provides comprehensive world energy statistics on all energy sources – coal, gas, oil, electricity, renewables and waste. It covers energy supply and consumption for over 160 countries and regions, including all OECD countries, and more than 100 other key energy producing and consuming countries, as well as world totals and various regional aggregates. The book includes detailed tables by country in original units, and summary time series on production, trade, and final consumption by sector.In the companion publication World Energy Balances, data are presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in energy units.
  • 17-September-2019

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: The United States 2019

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) regularly conducts in-depth peer reviews of the energy policies of its member countries. This process supports energy policy development and encourages the exchange of international best practices and experiences.In the United States, the shale revolution continues to be a driving force for energy policy, shifting it from a mindset of energy scarcity to one of energy abundance. Innovations in oil and gas extraction through horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have vastly increased the importance of US production in the energy landscape, both at home and internationally. The timely siting of supporting infrastructure will be essential to ensure continued gains from the shale boom.US government policy is centred on the concept of 'energy dominance,' which reflects a strategy of maximising energy production, expanding exports and being a leader in energy technologies. Environmental deregulation is a central focus, though it may have implications for the trajectory of greenhouse gas emissions.The United States has achieved notable reductions in CO2 emissions over the past decade, led by its power sector. Low-cost shale gas combined with falling costs and policy support for renewables have shifted dependence away from coal-fired generation. Still, closures of coal and nuclear plants are expected to continue, requiring policy and regulatory responses to ensure a steady transition.Energy security remains a priority for the United States, which continues to demonstrate a strong focus on reliability and resilience.In this report, the IEA provides energy policy recommendations to help the United States smoothly manage the transformation of its energy sector.
  • 17-September-2019

    English

    Establishing Multilateral Power Trade in ASEAN

    The ASEAN member states have a long-standing goal to establish multilateral power trading in the region. To date, regional power trading has been limited to a series of uncoordinated bilateral cross-border arrangements. Multilateral power trading can bring multiple benefits, including reduced system costs, increased energy security and an ability to integrate higher shares of variable renewable energy. An examination of international experiences shows that it is possible to establish multilateral trading while allowing for stepwise and voluntary development and respecting local sovereignty. At the same time, increased cross-border integration and power trade does require increased co-ordination and regulatory harmonisation.This report identifies a set of minimum political, technical and institutional requirements that the ASEAN member states will need to meet in order to establish multilateral power trading in the region. Some of these minimum requirements can be met by building upon existing efforts in the region. The report also proposes a set of trading arrangements of increasing levels of ambition which, taken together, will enable ASEAN to establish multilateral power trading in a manner that is consistent with maximising national sovereignty and the equitable sharing of benefits. These recommendations include a summary of potential roles for regional institutions and an example transaction to show how trading might potentially work in practice.
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