Publications


  • 13-April-2017

    English

    Towards a Better Globalisation - How Germany Can Respond to the Crisis

    People in many countries, especially advanced countries, are expressing growing discontent about globalisation. They feel that its benefits have accrued mostly to a small and already well-off segment of the population. In addition, many citizens are dissatisfied with the way economic integration has been advanced. They complain about too little transparency and too many conflicts of interests between policy makers and firms. Several of the negative effects feeding the discontent have more to do with technological change than with globalisation per se, but the two are closely intertwined. Moreover, the policies put in place to alleviate negative impacts of economic openness on some groups, industries and regions have not always worked as intended, and global rule-making has not kept up with reality. Given its many benefits, reversing economic integration is not a solution. Rather, we need to find ways to make it work for all. This report sets out what needs to be done to advance a fairer and more inclusive globalisation – at the global level, at the European level and within Germany.

  • 12-avril-2017

    Français

    Principes directeurs internationaux pour la TVA/TPS

    La taxe sur la valeur ajoutée (TVA, également connue sous le nom de Taxe sur les Produits et Services avec l'acronyme TPS dans certains pays de l'OCDE) est devenue une source essentielle de recettes pour les États de toutes les régions du monde. Quelque 165 pays appliquaient une TVA au moment de l'achèvement des Principes directeurs internationaux pour la TVA/TPS en 2016, soit plus de deux fois plus que 25 ans auparavant. Cette expansion de la TVA à l’échelle mondiale a coïncidé avec l’expansion rapide des échanges internationaux de biens et de services dans une économie mondialisée. Il en a résulté une interaction plus forte entre les systèmes de TVA et, en corollaire, des risques accrus de double imposition et de non-imposition involontaire en l'absence d'une coordination internationale de la TVA.

    Les Principes directeurs internationaux pour la TVA/TPS comprennent à présent un ensemble internationalement reconnu de normes et d'approches recommandées destinées à résoudre les problèmes issus de l'absence de coordination des systèmes de TVA nationaux dans le contexte du commerce international. Ils portent une attention particulière aux échanges de services et de biens incorporels, qui posent des défis croissants pour la conception et le fonctionnement des systèmes de TVA dans le monde. Ils comprennent notamment les principes et les mécanismes recommandés pour relever les défis de la collecte de la TVA sur le commerce international de produits numériques qui ont été identifiés par le projet OCDE/G20 sur l'érosion de la base d'imposition et le transfert des bénéfices (Base and Erosion and Profit Shifting - BEPS).

    Ces Principes directeurs ont été adoptés en tant que Recommandation du Conseil de l'OCDE en septembre 2016.

  • 11-April-2017

    English

    The Nature of Problem Solving - Using Research to Inspire 21st Century Learning

    Solving non-routine problems is a key competence in a world full of changes, uncertainty and surprise where we strive to achieve so many ambitious goals. But the world is also full of solutions because of the extraordinary competences of humans who search for and find them. We must explore the world around us in a thoughtful way, acquire knowledge about unknown situations efficiently, and apply new and existing knowledge creatively.

    The Nature of Problem Solving presents the background and the main ideas behind the development of the PISA 2012 assessment of problem solving, as well as results from research collaborations that originated within the group of experts who guided the development of this assessment. It illustrates the past, present and future of problem-solving research and how this research is helping educators prepare students to navigate an increasingly uncertain, volatile and ambiguous world.

  • 10-April-2017

    English

    Financial Incentives for Steering Education and Training

    The present report examines how governments use financial incentives to promote a better alignment between labour market needs, on the one hand, and the supply of skills, on the other. In doing so, it identifies: i) innovative models that countries may be interested in learning from; ii) best practice in the design and use of financial incentives; iii) framework conditions for their effective use; and iv) limitations and risks in the use of financial incentives.

  • 8-April-2017

    English

    Inclusive Global Value Chains - Policy Options in Trade and Complementary Areas for GVC Integration by Small and Medium Enterprises and Low-Income Developing Countries

    This joint OECD and World Bank Group report, presented to G20 Trade Ministers in October 2015, focuses on the challenge of making GVCs more “inclusive” by overcoming participation constraints for SMEs and facilitating access for LIDCs. Results suggest that SME participation in GVCs is mostly taking place through indirect contribution to exports (rather than through direct exports), and that a holistic approach to trade, investment and national and multilateral policy action is needed to create more inclusive GVCs.

    The report highlights the importance of ensuring access to ICT networks – in particular broadband – and stimulating innovation – in particular by enhancing the ability of SMEs to manage and protect their intellectual assets. At the same, the report underscores the importance of helping small firms scale up quickly, and to better integrate in GVCs by lowering barriers to the entry, growth and exit of firms. Countries should also avoid favouring incumbents over new firms.

  • 7-April-2017

    English

    Agricultural Policies in the Philippines

    This report analyses Philippine agricultural policy. Agriculture provides 30% of total employment in the Philippines and represents 11% of its Gross Domestic Product. The Philippines has had notable recent overall economic success, yet improving agricultural performance remains challenging. Productivity growth lags behind other Southeast Asian countries, and a number of policy distortions hinder progress. With agricultural land resources also under pressure from frequent natural disasters, rising population and urbanisation, the report offers a series of recommendations to improve the sector’s performance and its ability to adapt to climate change.

  • 6-April-2017

    English

    Back to Work: New Zealand - Improving the Re-employment Prospects of Displaced Workers

    Job displacement (involuntary job loss due to firm closure or downsizing) affects many workers over their lifetime. Displaced workers may face long periods of unemployment and, even when they find new jobs, tend to be paid less and have fewer benefits than in their prior jobs. Helping them get back into good jobs quickly should be a key goal of labour market policy. This report is part of a series of reports looking at how this challenge is being tackled in a number of OECD countries. It shows that in New Zealand most displaced workers find a new job again, largely due to a strong economy and a highly flexible labour market. But many of them face large losses in terms of job quality and especially wages. And displaced workers facing difficulties in New Zealand are largely left on their own to find a new job, as the means-tested public benefit system only provides for people in need and employment services concentrate on helping people off benefit with limited focus on those not receiving a benefit.

    Nine countries are participating in the review: Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Japan,
    Korea, New Zealand, Sweden and the United States.

    Contents
    Chapter 1. Job displacement in New Zealand and its consequences
    Chapter 2 Easing the impact of economic restructuring on displaced workers in New Zealand
    Chapter 3 Re-employment support for displaced workers in New Zealand who struggle to find a new job

    www.oecd.org/employment/displaced-workers.htm

  • 6-April-2017

    English

    Taxation and Skills

    This Tax Policy Study on Taxation and Skills examines how tax policy can encourage skills development in OECD countries. This study also assesses the returns to tertiary and adult education and examines how these returns are shared between governments and students. The study builds indicators that examine incentives for individuals and governments to invest in education. These indicators take into account the various financial costs of skills investments for individuals such as foregone after-tax earnings and tuition fees, as well as whether investments are financed with savings or with student loans. Costs borne by governments such as grants, scholarships, lost taxes, and skills tax expenditures are also accounted for. The indicators also incorporate the returns to skills investments for individuals and governments through higher after-tax wages and higher tax revenues respectively.

  • 6-avril-2017

    Français

    Compte satellite du tourisme : recommandations concernant le cadre conceptuel 2008

    Un Compte satellite du tourisme a pour objectif d’analyser en détail tous les aspects de la demande de biens et de services associés à l’activité des visiteurs; de voir comment cette demande se confronte dans la pratique à l’offre de ces biens et services dans cette même économie; et de décrire les interactions entre cette offre et d’ autres activités économiques. Le présent volume, Compte satellite du tourisme : recommandations concernant le cadre conceptuel 2008, offre un cadre mis à jour pour la construction d’un Compte satellite du tourisme. Il devrait permettre une plus grande compatibilité interne des statistiques du tourisme avec le reste du système statistique d’un pays et une meilleure comparabilité internationale des données.

  • 5-avril-2017

    Français

    Examen multidimensionnel du Sénégal - Volume 1. Évaluation initiale

    Après des décennies de progrès économique et social modestes, le Sénégal renoue avec une dynamique de croissance depuis 2012. La volonté des autorités sénégalaises d'amener le pays à l'émergence à l'horizon 2035 se traduit par de nombreuses avancées, sur le plan des infrastructures par exemple ou en matière de production agricole. Toutefois, d’importants défis demeurent, notamment en matière de réduction de la pauvreté, de création d'emplois ou d'accès à des services sociaux de qualité.

    L'Examen multidimensionnel du Sénégal vise à soutenir l'élaboration du second volet de la stratégie de développement décennale, le Plan Sénégal émergent 2014-23. Ce premier volume passe en revue les performances du Sénégal et identifie les principales contraintes au développement. Il se base sur un diagnostic des évolutions macroéconomiques, des performances en matière de bien-être des citoyens, du degré de compétitivité du secteur privé, et du fonctionnement du système institutionnel. Ce volume identifie trois contraintes majeures au développement : les faiblesses du système éducatif ; les dysfonctionnements du régime et de l’administration fiscaux dans la mobilisation des ressources ; et la faible efficacité de l'État sénégalais.

    Le deuxième volume proposera des recommandations pour lever les contraintes majeures identifiées et le troisième analysera les modalités de leur mise en oeuvre.

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