Nuclear Energy Data is the Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting nuclear power status in NEA member countries and in the OECD area. Information provided by governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants increased slightly in 2015, by 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively. Two new units were connected to the grid in 2015, in Russia and Korea; two reactors returned to operation in Japan under the new regulatory regime; and seven reactors were officially shut down – five in Japan, one in Germany and one in the United Kingdom. Governments committed to having nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for developing or increasing nuclear generating capacity, with the preparation of new build projects progressing in Finland, Hungary, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports.
This publication contains "StatLinks". For each StatLink, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link.
Mexico is slowly advancing on the path to gender equality. Many public policies aimed at empowering women are now in place: over the past two decades, Mexico has increased investments in girls' education, greatly expanded childcare and preschool, improved gender mainstreaming in government, and ensured that female politicians are well-represented at the ballot box. Yet, despite these efforts, many Mexican women still do not feel the effects of these policies at home, at work, or in public spaces. Large gender gaps remain in educational outcomes, participation in the labour market, pay, informality status, and hours of unpaid childcare and housework. “Unlocking Mexico’s full potential,” as Mexico's National Development Plan prescribes, will depend crucially on how well Mexico closes existing gender gaps in political, social and economic life and promotes real social change. Mexico must continue to invest in social and labour market policies that empower women, and reinvigorate efforts to reduce inequalities in education, labour force participation, job quality, unpaid work, and leadership. This will require embedding gender equality objectives in all public policies and budgets, across all levels of government, and ensuring the effective implementation, enforcement, and evaluation of policies and laws to achieve inclusive outcomes.
Following a brief pause after the economic crisis, health expenditure is rising again in most OECD countries. Yet, a considerable part of this health expenditure makes little or no contribution to improving people's health. In some cases, it even results in worse health outcomes. Countries could potentially spend significantly less on health care with no impact on health system performance, or on health outcomes. This report systematically reviews strategies put in place by countries to limit ineffective spending and waste. On the clinical front, preventable errors and low-value care are discussed. The operational waste discussion reviews strategies to obtain lower prices for medical goods and to better target the use of expensive inputs. Finally, the report reviews countries experiences in containing administrative costs and integrity violations in health.
This publication identifies the main regulatory obstacles of the following transport sectors in Mexico: road transport, railways, ports, border crossing, and airway passengers. The report also offers recommendations to improve the quality of the regulatory framework of these sectors.
This statistical report is designed to help understand what drives f inal energy use in IEA member countries in order to improve and track national energy efficiency policies.
It provides the first comprehensive selection of data that the IEA has been collecting each year after its member states recognised in 2009 the need to better monitor energy eff iciency policies.
The report includes country-specif ic analysis of end uses across the largest sectors – residential, services, industry and transport. It answers questions such as:
Improving energy eff iciency is a critical step for governments to take to move towards a sustainable energy system. This report highlights the key role of end-use energy data and indicators in monitoring progress in energy eff iciency around the world.
Wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) are currently the fastest-growing sources of electricity globally. A "next generation" phase of deployment is emerging, in which wind and solar PV are technologically mature and economically affordable.
The success of variable renewable energy (VRE) is also bringing new challenges to the fore. Electricity generation from both technologies is constrained by the varying availability of wind and sunshine. This can make it difficult to maintain the necessary balance between electricity supply and consumption at all times.
As these variable renewables enter this next generation of deployment, the issue of system and market integration becomes a critical priority for renewables policy and energy policy more broadly. The paper highlights that this will require strategic action in three areas:
- System-friendly deployment, aiming to maximise the net benefit of wind and solar power for the entire system
- Improved operating strategies, such as advanced renewable energy forecasting and enhanced scheduling of power plants
- Investment in additional flexible resources, comprising demand-side resources, electricity storage, grid infrastructure and flexible generation
In addition, the paper argues that unlocking the contribution of system-friendly deployment calls for a paradigm shift in the economic assessment of wind and solar power. The traditional focus on the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) – a measure of cost for a particular generating technology at the level of a power plant – is no longer sufficient. Next-generation approaches need to factor in the system value of electricity from wind and solar power – the overall benefit arising from the addition of a wind or solar power generation source to the power system. System value is determined by the interplay of positives and negatives including reduced fuel costs, reduced carbon dioxide and other pollutant emissions costs, or higher costs of additional grid infrastructure.
In addition to general analysis and recommendations, the paper also includes summaries of three case studies in China, Denmark and South Africa.
The Czech Republic recently approved a new National Energy Policy (SEP) that aims to reduce energy consumption and improve the economy’s energy intensity. This IEA country review provides a snapshot of the energy sector in the Czech Republic and examines the impact of the SEP. The review warns that reaching long-term energy targets will require greater effort if the country is to play its part in the on-going global energy transition.
The SEP broadly seeks to strengthen security of energy supply and build a competitive and sustainable energy sector. While the Czech Republic has experienced strong growth in the renewable energy sector – notably solar PV – policy changes have created uncertainty. Meanwhile, greenhouse gas emissions, which have been falling since 2000, are expected to increase. Coal dominates the power sector and is the largest source of carbon emissions and also poses a substantial threat to local air quality.
The review finds that natural gas supply security remains strong, and the country is expected to remain a net exporter of electricity. The expansion of nuclear power is one of the main pillars of the SEP, and will play a greater role in coming years. The SEP also establishes key targets for energy security, emissions, energy savings, electricity generation and affordability.
This review also provides recommendations for further policy improvements that are intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
Since the last in-depth review in 2009, Italy has made strong progress in the development and implementation of energy policy. The most notable improvement has been the publication of a comprehensive long-term energy strategy.
The adoption of the National Energy Strategy in 2013 sent a strong signal to stakeholders as to the government’s medium- and long-term objectives for the energy sector. It established clear goals: reduce energy costs, meet environmental targets, strengthen security of energy supply and foster sustainable economic growth. Nonetheless, the adoption of the Strategy is only a first step towards achieving the government’s ambitions. Monitoring implementation and maintaining momentum will present a challenge for the government.
Italy has experienced impressive growth in the renewable energy sector and has been successful in integrating large volumes of variable renewable generation. Containing costs is a priority, and policies need to focus on bringing deployment costs towards international benchmarks.
Italy has also continued to progress in terms of market liberalisation and infrastructure development, notably in the electricity market where transmission improvements between north and south, as well as market coupling, have resulted in price convergence throughout the country and wholesale prices tending towards those elsewhere in Europe. Development in the gas sector has been slower, and greater progress is needed if Italy is to be become a southern European gas hub. Furthermore, institutional arrangements within the energy sector remain complex and should be reformed and strengthened. Implementation of the National Energy Strategy provides a timely opportunity to address each of these challenges in a comprehensive way.
This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Italy and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
En raison de la mobilité et de la fongibilité de l’argent, les groupes multinationaux peuvent aisément obtenir des résultats fiscaux favorables en jouant sur le montant de la dette au sein d’une entité du groupe. Le rapport de 2015 a établi une approche commune qui relie directement les déductions nettes d’une entité au titre d’intérêts à son activité économique, sur la base d’un certain pourcentage de son résultat avant les revenus et charges d'intérêts, l'amortissement et les provisions (EBITDA). Cette approche associe trois éléments : une règle fondée sur un ratio déterminé qui repose sur un ratio de référence intérêts nets/EBITDA ; une règle fondée sur un ratio de groupe qui autorise une entité à déduire plus de charges d’intérêts, en fonction de la position de son groupe mondial ; et des règles ciblées qui traitent des risques spécifiques. Des travaux supplémentaires concernant deux aspects de l'approche commune ont été menés en 2016. Le premier aspect de ces travaux concerne les éléments de la conception et le fonctionnement de la règle fondée sur un ratio de groupe et se concentre sur les méthodes de calcul des charges nettes d’intérêts d’un groupe envers des tierces parties, le calcul de l’EBITDA de groupe et l’impact des entités avec un EBITDA négatif sur le fonctionnement de la règle. Le second aspect de ce travail identifie les caractéristiques des secteurs de la banque et de l'assurance qui peuvent restreindre la capacité de ces groupes à s’engager dans des pratiques de BEPS impliquant des charges d’intérêts, tout en soulignant que ces contraintes ne s’appliquent pas systématiquement. Il identifie également les approches permettant de gérer les risques posés par les entités appartenant à ces secteurs.