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  • 19-janvier-2021

    Français

    Dynamiques du développement en Afrique 2021 - Transformation digitale et qualité de l'emploi

    Dynamiques du développement en Afrique tire les leçons des expériences des cinq régions du continent – Afrique australe, centrale, de l'Est, du Nord et de l'Ouest – pour développer des recommandations en matière de politiques publiques et partager les bonnes pratiques. Étayé par les plus récentes statistiques, son décryptage des dynamiques de développement vise à permettre aux leaders africains de réaliser la vision stratégique de l’Agenda 2063 à tous les niveaux : continental, régional, national et local. L'édition 2021, dorénavant publiée en début d’année, explore le potentiel de la transformation digitale pour créer des emplois de qualité et réaliser l'Agenda 2063, en vue de renforcer la résilience des économies africaines face à la récession mondiale déclenchée par la pandémie de COVID-19. Le rapport cible quatre types d’action publique pour soutenir la transformation digitale de l'Afrique : réduire la fracture digitale ; soutenir l'innovation locale ; dynamiser les travailleurs indépendants ; et accélérer l'harmonisation, la mise en œuvre et le suivi des stratégies digitales. Cette édition comprend un nouveau chapitre examinant les perspectives de financement du développement de l'Afrique face à la crise économique mondiale de 2020. Dynamiques du développement en Afrique a pour vocation de nourrir le débat entre les membres de l’Union africaine, ainsi qu’avec les citoyens, entrepreneurs et chercheurs. Son ambition est de participer à une nouvelle coopération entre pays et entre régions, qui soit tournée vers l’apprentissage mutuel et la préservation de nos biens communs. Ce rapport est le fruit de la coopération entre la Commission de l’Union africaine et le Centre de développement de l’OCDE.
  • 18-January-2021

    English

    The effects of online disclosure about personalised pricing on consumers - Results from a lab experiment in Ireland and Chile

    Online personalised pricing is a form of price discrimination that involves charging different prices to different consumers, often based on a consumer’s personal data. Policymakers are currently discussing ways to protect consumers from potential adverse effects of personalised pricing. One option involves displaying disclosures on the websites of retailers that use personalised pricing, in order for consumers to make informed purchase decisions. This paper summarizes findings from a laboratory experiment on the effects that online disclosures about personalised pricing have on consumers. Results from the experiment suggest that online disclosures have only limited effects on consumers’ ability to identify and comprehend online personalised pricing, and cannot confirm a significant effect on participants’ purchasing behaviour. Results from a questionnaire distributed to participants reveal that on average personalised pricing is considered an unfair practice that should be prohibited.
  • 18-January-2021

    English

    Scale, market power and competition in a digital world - Is bigger better?

    This report assesses the impact of digitalisation on competition by examining the evolution of mark-ups and multifactor productivity (MFP) across firms of different sizes. It finds that size is positively related to mark-ups and that this relationship has strengthened over time. This trend has been accompanied by an increase in the relative productivity advantage of larger firms and both changes are more pronounced in digital-intensive sectors, suggesting that digitalisation may be an underlying driver. Policy makers may need to consider appropriate responses if digital technologies affect larger and smaller firms in a heterogeneous manner.
  • 18-January-2021

    English

    How does earnings advantage from tertiary education vary by field of study?

    A tertiary degree yields better earnings, especially in countries with a small share of tertiary-educated adults in the population. However, this earnings advantage varies significantly by field of study. In some countries, workers with a tertiary degree in arts and humanities earn less than those with just an upper secondary education. Occupations that have formed the backbone of society during the COVID-19 crisis, such as education and nursing, have among the lowest relative earnings of all fields of study. There is no clear correlation between the share of tertiary graduates by field of study and the relative earnings advantage. This may be due to the selectiveness of some fields, students’ personal interests or misinformation about the labour market. Policy makers will need to consider ways beyond market mechanisms to increase the attractiveness of fields of study which offer essential skills for society.
  • 18-January-2021

    English

    Not enough hours in the day - Policies that shape teachers’ use of time

    Teachers’ time is a critical resource for education systems and a key input for student learning. Like any type of resource, teachers’ time can be used more or less effectively to promote a range of outcomes such as student learning, equity and well-being. Whether teachers are given an additional hour in the classroom, an hour to prepare their lessons or an hour to engage in professional learning can affect both the cost and the quality of education. Based on OECD survey data and indicators, this paper provides a systematic overview of how teachers across the OECD report using their time and how their time use is regulated in national policy frameworks. Building on the findings from the OECD School Resources Review series, the paper then explores human resource policies that can support education stakeholders in rethinking priorities, roles and responsibilities in school education and promote an effective use of teachers’ time.
  • 14-January-2021

    English

    Digital opportunities for demand-side policies to improve consumer health and the sustainability of food systems

    Digital tools and technologies can assist governments to improve consumer health and the sustainability of food systems. These tools can be used to encourage consumers to buy healthy and nutritious foods and foods produced through sustainable farming practices, as well as to reduce asymmetries of food labelling schemes. They also contribute to more effective food data collection systems that can inform policy decisions, including by combining commercial sales information with national dietary intake survey data. Given the diverse approaches to adopting these digital tools, there is scope for cross-country learning. Current use of digital technologies by some governments ‒ from national dietary guideline websites to dedicated mobile apps ‒ can serve as references for other countries that seek to develop their own digital programmes. While these tools offer useful mechanisms for advancing policy objectives, they will need to be carefully designed to maximisetheir effectiveness and regularly evaluated to avoid excess cost and duplication.
  • 14-January-2021

    English

    PISA-Based Test for Schools - International Linking Study 2020

    An international linking study was conducted in order to link parameters of PISA-based Test for Schools (PBTS) cognitive items to PISA international scales. New booklets for the linking study were designed in which the PISA trend items were inserted as anchor items in addition to the PBTS items. Data was collected from four countries with over 95 000 students via Computer-Based Testing, and analysed with the finite mixture modelling in order to estimate the parameters of PBTS items under the constraint of fixed PISA item parameters. The estimated item parameters were validated in terms of reliability and international comparability. The linking study enabled the PBTS test to provide valid and reliable scores on PISA international scale.
  • 13-January-2021

    English

    Job mobility, reallocation and wage growth - A tale of two countries

    This paper analyses the role of job mobility for job reallocation and aggregate wage growth in Norway and the United States using linked employer-employee data. It provides four main findings. First, despite lower overall job mobility in Norway, the speed of worker reallocation from low-wage to high-wage firms is similar to that in the United States. Second, job reallocation tends to be counter-cyclical in Norway, but pro-cyclical in the United States, due to the weaker tendency of high-wage firms in the United States to hoard workers during economic downturns. Third, the reallocation of workers from low to high wage firms through job-to-job mobility disproportionately benefits high-skilled workers in Norway and low-skilled workers in the United States. Fourth, the slowdown in aggregate wage growth primarily reflects a weakening of on-the-job wage growth in both countries rather than a reduced role of job reallocation between low and high-wage firms (although this does also play a role in the United States).
  • 12-janvier-2021

    Français

    Principes directeurs pour des contrats extractifs durables

    Les Principes directeurs pour des contrats extractifs durables indiquent comment développer des projets extractifs reflétant équilibre des risques et bénéfices, tout en tenant compte dès le départ des intérêts et des préoccupations des communautés locales. Ils apportent un cadre au contenu et à la négociation des contrats extractifs, permettant de réduire les risques de litiges et les demandes de renégociation, et de s’adapter de manière prévisible aux conditions qui prévalent sur les marchés. Les Principes directeurs donnent aux gouvernements des pays hôtes et aux investisseurs les clés pour expliquer au public le contenu des contrats, et ainsi gérer les tensions entre les parties prenantes. Ils incluent huit principes et des commentaires que gouvernements hôtes, investisseurs, fournisseurs d’assistance technique et praticiens du droit peuvent utiliser comme référence commune pour la future négociation de contrats pérennes et mutuellement avantageux.
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  • 11-January-2021

    English

    Making Better Policies for Food Systems

    Food systems around the world face a triple challenge: providing food security and nutrition for a growing global population; supporting livelihoods for those working along the food supply chain; and contributing to environmental sustainability. Better policies hold tremendous promise for making progress in these domains. This report focuses on three questions. What has been the performance of food systems to date, and what role did policies play? How can policy makers design coherent policies across the triple challenge? And how can policy makers deal with frictions related to facts, interests, and values, which often complicate the task of achieving better policies? Better policies will require breaking down silos between agriculture, health, and environmental policies, and overcoming knowledge gaps, resistance from interest groups, and differing values. Robust, inclusive, evidence-based processes are thus essential to making better policies for food systems.
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