Latvia’s economy has grown robustly in recent years on the back of a strong track record in implementing structural reforms, despite a challenging international environment. Rising wages have supported household consumption. After a severe setback in 2008-09, catch-up with higher income OECD countries may have resumed. Government finances are solid and financial market confidence in Latvia is strong. Private sector indebtedness is now lower than in many OECD economies. Export performance, including diversification of products and destinations, is improving, but Latvia’s participation in global value chains is modest. Latvia’s exports still rely heavily on low value-added, natural resource intensive products, reflecting in part skills shortages and weak innovation. Unemployment remains high, although it has fallen. Many young Latvians emigrate. Informal economic activity is still widespread.
High long-term unemployment, weak social safety nets and high labour taxes for workers on low pay contribute to widespread poverty. Many low-income households are inadequately housed. High out-of-pocket payments limit access of low-income households to health services. Improving access to housing, health care, education and training would improve economic opportunities for low-income households and requires additional government spending.
SPECIAL FEATURES : MOVING UP THE GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN; ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE
State-owned enterprises (SOEs) are important elements of many national economies. They are also increasingly active internationally, which has led to renewed concerns in recent years about whether their competitive conditions in home markets might adversely impact “fair” competition with companies abroad. Many of the concerns held by national policy makers and businesses surrounding foreign SOEs’ competitive conditions stem from limited transparency and information on SOEs. This report seeks to bolster the factual information base by presenting the main findings of the most comprehensive and internationally comparable dataset currently available on the size, sectoral distribution and corporate forms of national SOE sectors in 40 countries.
This report is the second edition of Tax Policy Reforms: OECD and Selected Partner Economies, which is an annual publication that provides comparative information on tax reforms across countries and tracks tax policy developments over time.
This year’s report covers the tax reforms that were implemented, legislated or announced in 2016. Two non-OECD countries, Argentina and South Africa, have been included in this year’s edition, in an effort to progressively expand the scope of the publication to key partner economies. Monitoring tax policy reforms and understanding the context in which they were undertaken is crucial to informing tax policy discussions and to supporting governments in the assessment and design of tax reforms.
Regards sur l’éducation : Les indicateurs de l’OCDE est la publication de référence sur l’état de l’éducation dans le monde. Avec plus de 125 graphiques et 145 tableaux, et un corpus encore plus riche de données consultables sur notre base de données consacrée à l’éducation, Regards sur l’éducation 2017 présente des données clés sur : les résultats des établissements d’enseignement ; l’impact de l’apprentissage dans les différents pays ; les ressources financières et humaines investies dans l’éducation ; l’accès, la participation et la progression au sein des systèmes d’éducation ; l’environnement d’apprentissage ; et l’organisation scolaire.
Avec un nouvel éclairage sur les domaines d’études, cette édition 2017 analyse notamment les tendances des taux de scolarisation dans le deuxième cycle de l’enseignement secondaire et l’enseignement tertiaire, la mobilité étudiante, et les débouchés professionnels des diplômes obtenus dans ces différents domaines. Elle présente en outre pour la première fois un chapitre entièrement consacré aux objectifs de développement durable (ODD) et permet donc de faire le point sur la progression des pays membres ou partenaires de l’OCDE sur la voie de la réalisation des cibles de ces ODD. Enfin, la section relative à la participation et à la progression au sein des systèmes d’éducation introduit deux nouveaux indicateurs : le premier sur le taux de réussite des élèves du deuxième cycle de l’enseignement secondaire, et le second sur les processus d’admission dans l’enseignement supérieur.
Le rapport couvre l’ensemble des 35 pays membres de l’OCDE, ainsi qu’un certain nombre de pays partenaires (Afrique du Sud, Arabie saoudite, Argentine, Brésil, Chine, Colombie, Costa Rica, Fédération de Russie, Inde, Indonésie et Lituanie).
Les fichiers ExcelTM qui ont servi à l’élaboration des tableaux et graphiques de Regards sur l’éducation sont disponibles via les liens StatLinks fournis tout au long de la publication.
For well over two decades, the OECD has developed and published a broad range of comparative indicators published yearly in the flagship publication Education at a Glance. These provide insights into the functioning of education systems, such as the participation and progress through education, the human and financial resources invested, and the economic and social outcomes associated with educational attainment. Through the set of harmonised indicators and definitions, they enable countries to view their education system in the light of other countries’ performance, practices, and resources.
Fundamental to the credibility and understanding of these comparisons are the concepts, definitions, classifications and methodologies that have been developed over the years to underpin the statistics and indicators. This Handbook draws these methodologies together in a single reference volume, complementing and providing an invaluable aid to users of Education at a Glance. In doing so, the Handbook aims to facilitate a greater understanding of the education statistics and indicators produced and so allow for their more effective use in policy analysis. Equally, it provides a ready reference of international standards and conventions for others to follow in the collection and assimilation of educational data.
This edition updates the OECD Handbook for Internationally Comparative Education Statistics, last published in May 2004.
Civil servants make an important contribution to national growth and prosperity. Today, however, digitalisation and more demanding, pluralistic and networked societies are challenging the public sector to work in new ways. This report looks at the capacity and capabilities of civil servants of OECD countries. It explores the skills required to make better policies and regulations, to work effectively with citizens and service users, to commission cost-effective service delivery, and to collaborate with stakeholders in networked settings. The report also suggests approaches for addressing skills gaps through recruitment, development and workforce management.
Management of farm animal diseases is increasingly important in view of the threats they pose to farm incomes and sometimes even to the viability of farm enterprises, wildlife and humans. This report analyses the incentives for individual farmers to manage such risks and the governments' role to align farmer incentives with public objectives.
Identifying and assessing animal disease risks, as well as understanding their financial implications, are central to decisions made by farmers. The report examines the economic drivers of farmer decisions and government economic instruments, such as compensation related to livestock epidemics. It further discusses a spectrum of psychological and social drivers of farmer behaviour and emphasises the importance of government's more extensive role in the areas of information, communication and education related to disease management. Finally, farmer collective action in various areas of disease management is considered, such as capacity building, risk insurance, surveillance, and responses to disease outbreaks. The case studies of livestock disease management in Australia, Chile and Korea complement this analysis.
Regulations help governments support economic growth, social welfare and environmental protection. The challenge is to design clear, coherent, and efficient regulations and to effectively implement them. This report presents cutting-edge thinking in how to facilitate good regulatory design and implementation. Jointly developed by the OECD and the Korea Development Institute, the report builds on a series of expert papers that analyse the experience of Korea and other OECD members in designing and implementing regulatory oversight, stakeholder engagement, regulatory impact assessment and ex post evaluation. It identifies forthcoming challenges, possible solutions and areas for further analysis that can help governments in OECD member and partner countries improve their regulatory systems.
The modern structure of the UK economy is largely based on knowledge, ideas and innovation and its well integrated global value chains. These factors help boost the country’s economic growth, but at the same time they make it highly susceptible to the risk of trade in counterfeit goods. This risk negatively affects UK rights holders, the UK government, and the reputation of UK firms. This report measures the direct, economic effects of counterfeiting on consumers, retail and manufacturing industry and governments in the United Kingdom. It does so from two perspectives: the impact on these three groups of imports of fake products into the UK, and the impact of the global trade in fake products on UK intellectual property rights holders.
This report takes a case study approach, analysing the management and implementation of policies in the Drava and South-East regions of Slovenia. It provides a comparative framework to understand the role of the local labour market policy in matching people to jobs, engaging employers in skills development activities, as well as fostering new growth and economic development opportunities. It includes practical policy examples of actions taken in Slovenia to help workers find better quality jobs, while also stimulating productivity and inclusion.