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Publications


  • 15-April-2019

    English

    Corporate Governance in MENA - Building a Framework for Competitiveness and Growth

    A strong corporate governance framework is essential for MENA economies as they strive to boost economic growth, strengthen competitiveness and build prosperous societies. The G20/OECD Principles of Corporate Governance and the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises are a reference in order to build such a framework. This report assesses the corporate governance landscape in the MENA region by identifying challenges and proposing policy options for reform. The findings of the report are based on an analysis of policies and practices in four thematic areas: boosting access to finance and capital markets, improving transparency and disclosure, achieving gender balance in corporate leadership and enhancing the governance of state-owned enterprises in MENA. Overall, the report finds that MENA economies have made progress in strengthening corporate governance frameworks in recent years, but that the region still faces challenges in adopting and implementing corporate governance measures that support economic efficiency, sustainable growth and financial stability.
  • 15-avril-2019

    Français

    Pratiques Fiscales Dommageables - Rapport d'étape de 2018 sur les régimes préférentiels - Cadre inclusif sur le BEPS : Action 5

    Le Rapport sur l’Action 5 établit l’un des quatre standards minimums prévus par le projet BEPS que tous les membres du Cadre inclusif se sont engagés à mettre en œuvre. Un aspect du standard minimum défini par l’Action 5 se rapporte au processus d’examen par les pairs des régimes fiscaux préférentiels afin d’identifier les caractéristiques de ces régimes qui peuvent faciliter l'érosion de la base et le transfert de bénéfices et peuvent donc avoir une incidence défavorable sur l'assiette fiscale d'autres juridictions.Ce rapport d'étape constitue une mise à jour du rapport de 2015 sur l’Action 5 du BEPS et du Rapport d'étape de 2017. Il contient les résultats de l'examen de tous les régimes fiscaux préférentiels des membres du Cadre inclusif sur le BEPS qui ont été identifiés depuis le projet BEPS. Les résultats présentés sont ceux en date du mois de janvier de 2019.En outre, le Cadre inclusif a approuvé une nouvelle norme rétablissant l'obligation d'activités substantielles pour les juridictions qui ne prélèvent pas d’impôt ou qu’un impôt insignifiant. Ce rapport décrit en détail cette nouvelle norme ainsi que les autres initiatives engagées en vue de compléter ou de réviser le cadre applicable aux pratiques fiscales dommageables. Enfin, il présente les prochaines étapes des travaux consacrés aux pratiques fiscales dommageables.
  • 12-April-2019

    English

    Strengthening Active Labour Market Policies in Italy

    This report on Italy is the fifth country study published in a series of reports looking into how policies connect people with jobs. It discusses how active labour market policies in Italy are performing both on the national and the regional level, focussing particularly on the reform process in the system of public employment services initiated by the Jobs Act. The ongoing reform has good potential to improve the performance of employment services in Italy, particularly if the stakeholders of the system cooperate to establish a binding performance management framework and develop national IT infrastructure supporting the tasks of the local offices to serve jobseekers and employers. The National Agency for Active Labour Market Policies has a key role in encouraging the cooperation between the stakeholders, leading the development of new tools and methodologies and thus supporting the local employment offices to implement the new service model. Besides the general reform process, the review looks at some specific approaches regarding providing employment services in Italy – using jobseeker profiling tools to target active labour market policies; increasing quality and capacity of employment services by contracting out employment services to private service providers; and reaching out to employers and advancing demand-side services.
  • 10-April-2019

    English

    Under Pressure: The Squeezed Middle Class

    Middle-class households feel left behind and have questioned the benefits of economic globalisation. In many OECD countries, middle incomes have grown less than the average and in some they have not grown at all. Technology has automated several middle-skilled jobs that used to be carried out by middle-class workers a few decades ago. The costs of some goods and services such as housing, which are essential for a middle class lifestyle, have risen faster than earnings and overall inflation. Faced with this, middle classes have reduced their ability to save and in some cases have fallen into debt. This report sheds light on the multiple pressures on the middle class. It analyses the trends of middle-income households through dimensions such as labour occupation, consumption, wealth and debt, as well as perceptions and social attitudes. It also discusses policy initiatives to address the concerns raised by the middle-class, by protecting middle-class living standards and financial security in the face of economic challenges.
  • 10-April-2019

    English

    Digital Innovation - Seizing Policy Opportunities

    This report discusses how the digital transformation – digital technologies, data and software, AI-based analytics and other advances – is changing innovation processes and outcomes. It highlights the general trends across the economy and factors behind sector-specific dynamics, including increasing use of data as a key input for innovation, the expanding possibilities for experimentation offered by virtual simulation, 3D printing and other digital technologies, and the growing focus on services innovation enabled by digital technologies.In view of such changes, this report evaluates how innovation policies should adapt to foster innovation and inclusive development in the digital age, and identifies priority areas for policy action. It also explores novel innovation policy approaches implemented by countries to foster digital technology adoption and collaborative innovation.
  • 10-April-2019

    English

    University-Industry Collaboration - New Evidence and Policy Options

    This report discusses challenges and opportunities in assessing the impacts of science-industry knowledge exchange on innovation. The report provides new evidence on joint industry-science patenting activity and academic start-ups, as well as on the impact of geographical proximity between research institutions and industry on local innovation. The report explores the complex set of knowledge-transfer channels, such as collaborative research, co-patenting, academic spinoffs, and their relative importance across science fields and industry sectors. It also experiments with using labour force survey data to assess the contributions of graduates in social sciences to different industries.Different policy mixes are used in OECD countries to stimulate science-industry knowledge transfer. This report presents a taxonomy of 21 policy instruments, which include grants for collaborative university-industry research and financial support to university spin-offs, and discusses their possible positive and negative interactions. Based on a number of country case studies, the report also sheds light on new policy approaches to support spin-off creation. The report also explores recent trends on the governance of public research of high relevance to science-industry knowledge transfer using newly developed policy indicators for 35 OECD countries.
  • 9-April-2019

    English

    Engaging Employers and Developing Skills at the Local Level in Australia

    Local vocational education and training programmes serve as a valuable educational pathway to improve the transition from school to work. Within the VET system, quality apprenticeship programmes can provide employers with a skilled workforce that is more agile in a rapidly evolving global economy while also supporting new employment opportunities for disadvantaged groups.This report focuses on how to better engage employers in apprenticeship and other work-based skills development programmes aligned with growing sectors of the local economy. A key part of this report was the implementation of an employer-based survey, which gathered information from over 300 Australian employers about their skills needs and barriers to apprenticeship participation. The report also provides information on four case studies, including Sydney Metro and STEMship in New South Wales, Collective Education in Tasmania, and the Dream, Believe, Achieve programme in Queensland. The case studies demonstrate how local organisations are building stronger business-education partnerships.
  • 5-avril-2019

    Français

    Examens de l'OCDE sur la coopération pour le développement : Suisse 2019

    Le Comité d’aide au développement (CAD) de l’OCDE procède à des examens périodiques des efforts individuels de coopération pour le développement des membres du CAD. Les politiques et les programmes de chacun des membres font l’objet d’un examen critique une fois tous les cinq ans. Les examens par les pairs évaluent la performance du membre considéré, sans se limiter au seul organisme de coopération, et examinent les aspects ayant trait tant à la définition de la politique qu’à sa mise en œuvre. Ils couvrent dans leur globalité les activités de coopération pour le développement et d’aide humanitaire du membre soumis à examen, en les replaçant dans le système envisagé dans son entier.Cet examen analyse la performance de la Suisse, y compris son appui stratégique au système multilatéral pour gérer les biens et enjeux mondiaux, sa vision globale du développement et des partenariats ainsi que les pressions auxquelles font face les programmes de développement et humanitaire.
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  • 2-April-2019

    English

    Driving Performance at Peru's Energy and Mining Regulator

    As 'market referees', regulators contribute to the delivery of essential public utilities. Their organisational culture, behaviour and governance are important factors in how regulators, and the sectors they oversee, perform. The report uses the OECD Performance Assessment Framework for Economic Regulators to assess both the internal and external governance of Peru's Energy and Mining Regulator (Osinergmin). The review discusses Osinergmin's achievements and good practices, analyses the key drivers of its performance, and proposes an integrated reform package to help the regulator prepare for the future.
  • 1-avril-2019

    Français

    Femmes et réseaux marchands en Afrique de l’Ouest

    Les femmes contribuent largement à l’économie alimentaire de l’Afrique de l’Ouest, perpétuant une longue tradition de commerce et participant aux échanges frontaliers et au rayonnement régional. Ces activités se heurtent à de nombreux obstacles mais présentent de fortes opportunités, que le rapport souligne par une analyse relationnelle et spatiale inédite des réseaux sociaux. Celle-ci est conduite au niveau de la filière du riz dans la zone du Dendi (Bénin, Niger et Nigéria) et des réseaux de gouvernance régionaux promouvant l’entrepreneuriat féminin. Le rapport confirme l’effet attracteur du Nigéria porté par sa démographie et son urbanisation croissante. Il propose le développement de politiques publiques innovantes fondées sur le renforcement du capital social féminin et des options politiques pour une meilleure intégration des diverses initiatives entreprises par les États, les organisations internationales et non gouvernementales en matière d’autonomisation et de renforcement de la résilience des femmes.
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