La communauté internationale n’est guère en mesure aujourd’hui d’éviter un génocide tel que celui qui s’est produit au Rwanda en 1994 en dépit de l’évolution notable des systèmes d’alerte précoce observée depuis quelques années. L'ouvrage Prévenir la violence, la guerre et l’effondrement des États s’appuie sur une étude des publications existantes consacrées aux systèmes d’alerte précoce et de réponse rapide ainsi que sur des éléments fournis par les organismes consultés. Il vise à évaluer l’intérêt et le rôle des systèmes d’alerte précoce pour la prévention des conflits violents et à recenser les systèmes les plus efficaces en la matière.
This publication provides comments and illustrations of standards in force regarding the classification, presentation and marking of potatoes in international trade under the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables set up by OECD in 1962. It is a valuable tool for both the Inspection Authorities and professional bodies responsible for the application of standards or interested in trade in potatoes.
This report assesses the current status of Korea’s innovation system and policies, and identifies where and how the government should focus its efforts to improve the country’s innovation capabilities. It finds that Korea has one of the highest rates of spending on R&D in the world, much of which is performed by private firms. It also has a highly educated labour force – as signalled by its impressive PISA performance and exceptionally high rates of tertiary level graduation – with a strong interest in science and technology.
However, a number of bottlenecks persist that hamper Korea’s economic convergence with the leading OECD economies. These include a relatively weak SME sector and weak performance in services, as well as lagging capacities to conduct leading-edge research in many areas. Furthermore, Korea faces numerous threats in the mid term, notably increased levels of competition from China and other newly-industrialising economies, the lowest fertility rate in the OECD and an ageing society, and a continuing high dependency on imports of natural resources, particularly hydrocarbons. In the shorter term, the economic crisis offers its own challenges, with the need for some policy adjustments to deal with expected falls in business investment in R&D and growing levels of unemployment among the highly skilled.
Since 1992, the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) has provided a forum for radiological protection professionals from nuclear power utilities and national regulatory authorities worldwide to discuss, promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings for the radiological protection of workers at nuclear power plants. The ISOE objective is to improve occupational exposure management at nuclear power plants by exchanging relevant information, data and experience on methods to optimise occupational radiological protection.
This report on work management provides practical guidance on the application of work management principles as a contribution to the optimisation of occupational radiological protection. It recognises that while work management is no longer a new concept, continued efforts are needed to ensure that good performance, outcomes and trends are maintained in the face of current and future challenges. The focus of this report is therefore on presenting the key aspects of work management that should be considered by management and workers to save time, doses and money, supported by updated practical examples from within the ISOE community.
Fifty years after it was launched, the Marshall Plan remains a major event of post World War II history. But what did it actually do for European reconstruction? To commemorate the opening of its historical archives to the public and their deposit at the European University Institute (EUI), the OECD invited a group of EUI historians to analyse the role played by the Marshall Plan and the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) in the economic recovery of Europe.
This book examines the major moments punctuating OEEC history from the original offer of Marshall Aid in 1947 to the decision to create the OECD in 1960. It offers a history of the European economic reconstruction and contributes to discussions on models of co-operation favouring economic development, trade liberalisation and world economic integration.
This publication provides comments and illustrations of standards in force regarding the classification, presentation and marking of inshell hazelnuts in international trade under the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables set up by OECD in 1962. It is a valuable tool for both the Inspection Authorities and professional bodies responsible for the application of standards or interested in trade in Inshell Hazelnuts.
This report – undertaken at the same time as the reforms were being implemented – will interest both policy makers engaged in similar reform processes and others working on issues such the “political economy” of reforms, rural tourism, renewable energies, rural clusters, development of peri-urban areas and public service delivery in remote rural areas.
The Internet has been remarkably successful in developing greater opportunities for communication access - and economic growth and social development - for the first billion users. The majority of the next several billion users will be mainly from developing countries and will connect to the Internet principally via wireless networks. But there are substantial discrepancies in access to ICTs between developed and developing countries and also within countries, depending on factors such as gender, rural coverage, skills and educational levels.
This book examines how the market for internet traffic exchange has evolved and explores the coherence of policies pursued by developed and developing countries. It notes the increasing innovation occurring in a number of developing countries with competitive markets and discusses how liberalisation has helped to expand of access networks and make ICT services increasingly affordable and available to the poor. The report also highlights the employment, micro-entrepreneurial and social development opportunities which have emerged as access levels have risen among low-income users. The study notes that gateway service monopolies - still in 70 countries - raise the prices for accessing international capacity and reduce the affordability of Internet access to business and end users.
The report looks at the evolution of Japanese agricultural policy over the last several decades, but maintains its analytical focus on policies currently in place. In addition to reporting a wide variety of statistics, much of which were provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), use was made of the OECD PSE/CSE database and the OECD Policy Evaluation Model (PEM) for some of the analytical work.