Publications


  • 3-November-2010

    English

    High-Growth Enterprises - What Governments Can Do to Make a Difference

    The spectacular success of several well-known new ventures in technological fields, which in little more than a decade have jumped from the state of start-ups to that of top international businesses, has pointed to innovation as a key factor in the high growth of firms.  These high-growth enterprises often drive job creation and innovation, so policy makers are increasingly making such companies a key focus. Specifically, how can government policy foster the creation of more high-growth enterprises; what are the growth factors, and how can they be leveraged; what are the appropriate ways to provide such support?

    To help answer these questions, this report presents findings from two new research studies: (1) reports from 15 countries (Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and Tunisia) that provide interesting insights into the operations of and challenges faced by high-growth enterprises; (2) a policy survey by the OECD Working Party on SMEs and Entrepreneurship, which reviewed more than 340 programmes that policy makers in 24 countries have put in place to support the growth of enterprises. 

    Some of this report’s findings may surprise: any firm can be a growth company; growth is almost always a temporary phase; high-growth small firms are funded mostly by debt, not equity. These and many more insights are summarised and analysed, providing policy makers with ideas on how to power growth at the firm level.

  • 29-October-2010

    English

    Breaking Out of Policy Silos - Doing More with Less

    In the context of the economic recovery and public budget cuts, policy silos and fragmented short-term policy interventions have become luxuries that our economies can no longer afford. Government intervenes in a myriad of ways at the local level, and rarely are these interventions co-ordinated effectively. Most of us are familiar with policy “silos”. Such divisions are often taken for granted, blamed on historical working relationships (“it has always been like that”) and organisational cultures (“they don’t work like we do”).  However these divisions come at a cost. The issues and challenges facing local communities are often complex, and require a holistic approach to be resolved. This book provides concrete advice to policy makers at both national and local levels on how to better align policies, reduce duplication and waste, and “do more with less”. It is based on comparative analysis of 11 countries in Australisia, Europe and North America and combines rankings on where countries stand in terms of the integration of employment, skills and economic development policies, with concrete examples of successful policy integration on the ground.

  • 28-October-2010

    English

    Choosing a Broad Base - Low Rate Approach to Taxation

    Many countries will likely face the need to increase tax revenues, as part of fiscal consolidation, during the next few years. But how is this best done? And what are the considerations when choosing between raising tax rates and broadening the tax base by scaling back or abolishing targeted tax provisions (such as allowances, exemptions and preferential rates)? This report aims to answer such questions by taking a close look at the economic and political factors that influence governments’ tax decisions. 

    Although many countries have broadened their tax bases over the past 30 years, targeted tax provisions, notably tax expenditures, continue to be significant.  Like public expenditure, targeted tax reliefs mean that (other) tax rates need to be higher in order to finance these reliefs. This report therefore discusses whether such tax provisions continue to be worthwhile. It includes an annex covering country-specific revenue forgone estimates of tax expenditures for selected OECD countries.  

    This report also identifies political factors, including the lobbying of influential interest groups, as the main obstacles to base-broadening reforms, and it considers how reforms can be best packaged and presented to overcome such obstacles.

  • 18-October-2010

    English

    Citrus Fruits

    This publication provides comments and illustrations of standards in force regarding the classification, presentation and marking of citrus fruit in international trade under the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables set up by OECD in 1962. It is a valuable tool for both the Inspection Authorities and professional bodies responsible for the application of standards or interested in trade in citrus fruit. The book includes a USB key with the electronic version of the publication.

     

  • 11-octobre-2010

    Français

    Drogues au volant - Détection et dissuasion

    La conduite sous l'emprise de drogues – médicaments ou drogues illicites – commence à être reconnue comme un problème important pour la sécurité routière. Ce rapport propose un examen approfondi du rôle et de l'impact de la consommation de drogues sur le risque d'accident. Il passe en revue les réglementations en vigueur dans les pays membres, les pratiques de dissuasion et de détection en bord de route ainsi que les mesures de prévention pour combattre la conduite sous l'emprise de stupéfiants et de médicaments. Le rapport propose des recommandations sur les stratégies à adopter pour résoudre ce problème, afin de poursuivre le combat pour sauver des vies sur la route et contribuer à une approche pour un système sûr.

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  • 8-octobre-2010

    Français

    L'obésité et l'économie de la prévention - Objectif santé

    L’obésité est passée au premier plan des politiques de santé publique dans le monde. Avant 1980, nettement moins de 10 % de la population étaient concernés. Depuis, la proportion a doublé ou triplé dans beaucoup de pays et, dans près de la moitié de la zone OCDE, 50 % ou plus des habitants sont en surpoids. Grave facteur de risque pour toute une série de maladies chroniques, l’obésité est devenue un problème majeur de santé publique.  

    On croit généralement que l’épidémie d’obésité a des explications simples et que des solutions devraient pouvoir y être apportées sous peu. Or, un examen détaillé des données fait apparaître une situation plus complexe, dans laquelle il est même difficile de trouver des informations objectives sur le phénomène. Autorités, professionnels de la santé et chercheurs font face au défi de comprendre l’épidémie et d’élaborer une stratégie efficace pour la combattre.  

    Cet ouvrage contribue, par l’étude de multiples aspects du problème de l’obésité, à la mise au point de politiques scientifiquement fondées. Il examine l’étendue et les caractéristiques de l’épidémie, les rôles et influences respectifs des forces du marché et des pouvoirs publics, et l’impact des interventions. Une approche économique de la prévention des maladies chroniques est décrite, qui ouvre de nouvelles pistes par rapport à une approche plus traditionnelle de la santé publique.

    Les analyses ont été réalisées par l’OCDE, pour partie en collaboration avec l’Organisation mondiale de la santé. Les principaux chapitres sont complétés par des contributions spéciales d’experts de la santé et de l’obésité comme Marc Suhrcke, Tim Lobstein, Donald Kenkel et Francesco Branca.


    « Cet ouvrage présente une série de suggestions et de résultats précieux sur les mesures de prévention de l’obésité les plus efficaces. Tous les pays préoccupés par cette maladie y trouveront des conseils utiles pour définir des stratégies publiques propres à infléchir les tendances actuelles. »

     – Julio Frenk, Doyen de l’École de santé publique de Harvard

     

    « Le message positif de ce livre est que l’épidémie d’obésité peut être vaincue par des stratégies globales regroupant de multiples actions au niveau individuel et à l’échelle des populations. »

     – Ala Alwan, Sous-directeur général de l’Organisation mondiale de la santé

     

    « Ce rapport novateur et fouillé adopte une approche pluridisciplinaire pour présenter un tableau précis des données dont les responsables ont besoin pour agir. »

     – Martin McKee, professeur de santé publique en Europe,
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

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  • 7-October-2010

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Czech Republic 2010

    The International Energy Agency's 2010 review of the Czech Republic's energy policies and programmes. It analyses the energy challenges facing the Czech Republic and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

    It finds that the Czech Republic, rich in coal resources, is the third-largest electricity exporter in the European Union. The energy sector plays an important role for the country’s economy and for the regional energy security. Since the last IEA in-depth review in 2005, the Czech Republic has strengthened its energy policy, further liberalised its electricity and gas markets and made laudable efforts to enhance oil and gas security.

    The Czech government has a unique opportunity to develop coherent and balanced energy and climate strategies as it currently updates its policy documents. The draft State Energy Concept concentrates on energy security and on maintaining the Czech Republic as a net electricity exporter, through a diversified energy mix and a maximised use of indigenous resources, comprising coal, uranium and renewable energy.

    While the focus on energy security is praiseworthy, energy policy could be further improved. Energy policy should be better integrated with climate change considerations. At the same time, economic efficiency should be another key pillar of energy policy. To improve its energy security while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and enhancing economic development, the Czech Republic could take measures to: improve energy efficiency and broaden demand-side measures; focus on low-carbon technologies; integrate electricity and natural gas markets regionally; and optimise needed new infrastructure.

  • 5-October-2010

    English

    Occupational Radiological Protection Principles and Criteria for Designing New Nuclear Power Plants

    Global demand for electricity continues to grow and numerous new nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being planned or constructed in NEA member countries. Most of these new NPPs will be of the third generation, and will be designed for as long as 80 years of operation. The successful design, construction and operation of these plants will depend broadly on appropriately implementing the lessons from experience accumulated to date.

    This case study introduces a policy and technical framework that may be used when formulating technical assistance and guidance for senior managers of NPPs, designers, manufacturers, contractors and authorities responsible for regulating occupational radiation exposure. It is aimed in particular at assisting design and license assessments of new NPPs. Although not targeting the needs of countries introducing nuclear power for the first time, this case study can also provide valuable input on occupational radiological protection issues for the implementation of new nuclear energy programmes.

  • 4-October-2010

    English

    Illustrated Glossary for Transport Statistics 4th Edition

    The Glossary for Transport Statistics was published for the first time in 1994 with the purpose of assisting member countries during the collection of data on transport using the Common Questionnaire developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, the International Transport Forum and Eurostat.

    The Glossary is the result of continuing valuable co-operation between these three organisations that – through the action of the Intersecretariat Working Group (IWG.Trans) – have put a sustained effort into meeting the need to harmonise transport statistics at the international level. By following the guidance contained within these definitions, a considerable contribution will be given to the improvement in both the quality and comparability of the data

    The present fourth edition of the Glossary is an illustrated version, it includes 7 transport themes (rail, road, inland waterway, pipelines, maritime, aviation and intermodal transport) and comprises 735 definitions. It represents a point of reference for all those involved in transport statistics.

  • 4-octobre-2010

    Français

    La Sécurité et la réforme du cadre réglementaire des chemins de fer

    La déréglementation affaiblit-elle la sécurité ferroviaire ? De nombreux pays envisagent une réforme proconcurrentielle de leur secteur ferroviaire et certains l’ont déjà engagée. Ce type de réforme a toutefois suscité des inquiétudes quant à ses effets sur la sécurité ferroviaire, surtout lorsqu’il s’agit de privatiser ou de déréglementer les chemins de fer publics. Pour répondre à ces questions, ce rapport présente un examen détaillé de données complètes et comparables sur la sécurité ferroviaire, avant et après la réforme, dans un certain nombre de pays.
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