Publications


  • 12-October-2009

    English

    Taxation of SMEs - Key Issues and Policy Considerations

    This report covers a broad range of SME taxation issues, including possible effects of taxation on the creation and growth of SMEs, and considerations arising from a relatively high compliance burden. Differing income tax and social security contribution burdens of unincorporated and incorporated SMEs are considered in detail, with analysis of average statutory tax rates carried out to investigate possible tax distortions to business creation and business structure decisions of a single worker/owner of an SME. Various arguments are presented for and against the targeting of tax incentives at SMEs. Country examples of SME tax incentives and compliance cost reduction measures are provided in the report.

  • 9-October-2009

    English

    Research and Test Facilities Required in Nuclear Science and Technology

    Experimental facilities are essential research tools both for the development of nuclear science and technology and for testing systems and materials which are currently being used or will be used in the future. As a result of economic pressures and the closure of older facilities, there are concerns that the ability to undertake the research necessary to maintain and to develop nuclear science and technology may be in jeopardy.

    An NEA expert group with representation from ten member countries, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the European Commission has reviewed the status of those research and test facilities of interest to the NEA Nuclear Science Committee. They include facilities relating to nuclear data measurement, reactor development, neutron scattering, neutron radiography, accelerator-driven systems, transmutation, nuclear fuel, materials, safety, radiochemistry, partitioning and nuclear process heat for hydrogen production.

    This report contains the expert group’s detailed assessment of the current status of these nuclear research facilities and makes recommendations on how future developments in the field can be secured through the provision of high-quality, modern facilities. It also describes the online database which has been established by the expert group which includes more than 700 facilities.

  • 9-October-2009

    English

    Carbon Capture and Storage

    This energy technology roadmap on carbon capture and storage (CCS) identifies, for the first time, a detailed scenario for the technology’s growth from a handful of large-scale projects today to over three thousand projects by 2050. It finds that the next decade is a key “make or break” period for CCS; governments, industry and public stakeholders must act rapidly to demonstrate CCS at scale around the world in a variety of settings. The roadmap concludes with a set of near-term actions that stakeholders will need to take to achieve the roadmap’s vision.

  • 8-October-2009

    English

    Assessing Measures of Energy Efficiency Performance and their Application in Industry

    This paper explores different measures of energy efficiency performance (“MEEP”) and considers the importance of so-called boundary definitions when measuring energy performance, and how these affect the appropriateness of country comparisons to guide policy decisions.
    The paper also addresses the limitations of both energy intensity and technology diffusion indicators as measures of energy efficiency performance. A case study on Japan’s iron and steel industry illustrates the critical role of proper boundary definitions for a meaningful assessment of energy efficiency in industry.

     

  • 8-October-2009

    English

    Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commercial and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Clean coal technologies (CCTs) have been developed and deployed to reduce the environmental impact of coal utilisation over the past 30 to 40 years. Initially, the focus was upon reducing emissions of particulates, SO2, NOX and mercury.
    The coal sector – producers, consumers and equipment suppliers – as well as governments and agencies in countries where coal is essential, have a long experience of stimulating clean coal technology deployment.
  • 8-October-2009

    English

    Energy Efficiency Indicators for Public Electricity Production from Fossil Fuels

    Electricity production is responsible for 32% of total global fossil fuel use, accounting for 132 EJ, and 41%, or 10.9 Gt of energy-related CO2 emissions. Improving the efficiency of electricity production therefore offers economic benefits and a significant opportunity for reducing dependence on fossil fuels, which helps to combat climate change and improve energy security.
    A set of indicators has been developed to analyse the energy efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels on a global level and for a number of key countries and regions.

  • 8-October-2009

    English

    Empowering Variable Renewables – Options for Flexible Electricity Systems

    A number of renewable electricity technologies, such as wind, wave, tidal, solar, and run-of-river hydro share a characteristic that distinguishes them from conventional power plants: their output varies according to the availability of the resource.

    This is commonly perceived to be challenging at high shares, but there is no intrinsic, technical ceiling to variable renewables’ potential. Variability has to be looked at in the context of power system flexibility: if a power system is sufficiently flexible, in terms of power production, load management, interconnection and storage, the importance of the variability aspect is reduced.

  • 8-October-2009

    English

    Cogeneration and District Energy - Sustainable energy technologies for today... and tomorrow

    Combined heat and power and district heating and cooling (DHC) represent a series of proven, reliable and cost-effective technologies that are already making an important contribution to meeting global heat and electricity demand.
    This report follows the March 2008 report that hightlighted the energy, economic and environmental benefits of CHP and DHC (IEA, 2008). That report also provides a technical introduction to CHP/DHC and describes its global status and potential.
  • 28-September-2009

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Spain 2009

    This review analyses the energy challenges facing Spain and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It finds that since the last IEA in-depth review in 2005, Spain has made significant progress in improving its energy policy. In Europe, the country is now leading in gas diversification and LNG development. Together with Portugal, it has set up the common Iberian electricity market, MIBEL, and has strong ambitions in developing it further. It has also become prominent in developing wind and solar energy technology, and succeeded in integrating large amounts of intermittent power in the electricity grid.

    Along with other IEA member countries, Spain has set ambitious climate and energy security targets. Achieving these will require a transition to a low-carbon economy. Spain will need to increase its efforts to reduce CO2 emissions, particularly in the transport but also the critical power sector. As fossil fuels still provide more than half of electricity, Spain will need to keep open all the options - including nuclear, renewables, and the technology of carbon capture and storage - for making its power sector less carbon-intensive. The country should also increase its efforts to limit peak electricity demand through energy efficiency.

    Spain has substantially de-regulated its electricity and gas tariffs, and developed a financial plan to end the large deficit that had built up under the previous tariff regime. Prices for many small electricity users, however, are still regulated and low enough to potentially distort the market. In addition, the still remaining subsidies for domestic coal production should be eliminated and replaced by direct social policy measures.

  • 18-septembre-2009

    Français

    Concurrence et interactions entre aéroports, services de transports aériens et ferroviaires

    Comment réglementer les aéroports de façon à limiter leur pouvoir de marché ? Ce rapport part du principe que la question préalable à se poser est de savoir s’il est indiqué de réglementer. La réglementation étant imparfaite et coûteuse, les pouvoirs publics devraient chaque fois que c’est possible établir les conditions propices au développement de la concurrence entre aéroports en lieu et place d’une réglementation détaillée.

    Lorsque la réglementation économique se justifie, par exemple pour des aéroports très encombrés, le rapport examine les différentes approches réglementaires possibles pour déterminer celle qui est, en définitive, la plus adaptée. Il évalue aussi les stratégies de gestion des émissions de gaz à effet de serre. En intégrant l’aviation aux systèmes ouverts d’échange de droits d’émission, on pourrait réduire efficacement les émissions, mais on ne saurait en attendre des réductions importantes des émissions de CO2 dans le transport aérien proprement dit.

    Enfin, le rapport recense les conditions économiques dans lesquelles le train à grande vitesse peut devenir un substitut concurrentiel de l’avion. Cependant il conclut que le rail offre seulement des possibilités limitées en matière de réduction des ; émissions de gaz à effet de serre sur la partie correspondante du marché des transports.

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