Being able to measure people’s quality of life is fundamental when assessing the progress of societies. There is now widespread acknowledgement that measuring subjective well-being is an essential part of measuring quality of life alongside other social and economic dimensions. As a first step to improving the measures of quality of life, the OECD has produced Guidelines which provide advice on the collection and use of measures of subjective well-being. These Guidelines have been produced as part of the OECD Better Life Initiative, a pioneering project launched in 2011, with the objective to measure society’s progress across eleven domains of well-being, ranging from jobs, health and housing, through to civic engagement and the environment.
These Guidelines represent the first attempt to provide international recommendations on collecting, publishing, and analysing subjective well-being data. They provide guidance on collecting information on people's evaluations and experiences of life, as well as on collecting “eudaimonic” measures of psychological well-being. The Guidelines also outline why measures of subjective well-being are relevant for monitoring and policy making, and why national statistical agencies have a critical role to play in enhancing the usefulness of existing measures. They identify the best approaches for measuring, in a reliable and consistent way, the various dimensions of subjective well-being, and provide guidance for reporting on such measures. The Guidelines also include a number of prototype survey modules on subjective well-being that national and international agencies can use in their surveys.
Tax revenues provide governments with funds to invest in development, relieve poverty, deliver public services and build the physical and social infrastructure for long-term growth. Moreover, there are mutually beneficial links between taxation and good governance. Tax and Development: Aid Modalities for Strengthening Tax Systems highlights how taxation can have a positive effect on the quality of governance and a government’s relationship with citizens and, in turn, how good governance can have a positive effect on compliance and revenue mobilisation.
How can international assistance providers, including OECD members, international and regional organisations, support the development of tax systems in developing countries? Tax and Development: Aid Modalities for Strengthening Tax Systems provides practical guidance for policy makers and practitioners based on the results of an extensive literature review, a survey of aid agency officials and six country case studies (Ghana, Guatemala, Liberia, Mali, Mozambique, and Tanzania). It examines the aid instruments that donors use to assist developing countries including general and sector budget support, basket financing, stand-alone bilateral aid and funding South-South organisations. The strengths and weaknesses of each modality for supporting tax systems are identified, and some 50 recommendations to support the development of effective, efficient and growth-oriented tax systems in developing countries are provided.
Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Norway is the fourth in a series of reports looking at how the broader education, health, social and labour market policy challenges identified in Sick on the Job? Myths and Realities about Mental Health and Work (OECD, 2012) are being tackled in a number of OECD countries. It concludes that Norway faces a unique situation whereby a generous welfare system stimulates large-scale labour market exclusion and significant socio-economic inequalities of people with a mental disorder, and hindering better outcomes of its employment and vocational rehabilitation programmes.
La fourniture de services d’approvisionnement en eau, d’assainissement et de traitement des eaux usées a des répercussions très favorables sur la santé publique, l’économie et l’environnement. Dans les pays en développement, le rapport avantages/coûts peut aller jusqu’à 7 pour 1 pour les services d’eau et d’assainissement de base. Les actions en matière de traitement des eaux usées, par exemple, peuvent s’accompagner d’effets très positifs en termes de santé publique et d’environnement, ainsi que pour certains secteurs économiques comme la pêche, le tourisme et le marché de l’immobilier.
Les retombées favorables des services d’eau sont rarement considérées dans leur pleine mesure pour différentes raisons, notamment la difficulté de quantifier d’importants avantages non économiques tels que les valeurs de non-usage, la dignité, le statut social, la propreté et le bien-être général. Par ailleurs, les informations concernant les avantages liés aux services d’eau sont souvent enfouies dans des documents techniques et échappent aux principaux décideurs des ministères.
Ce rapport réunit et résume les informations existantes sur les avantages de l’eau et de l’assainissement.
By 2015, half of the world’s people living on less than USD 1.25 a day will be in fragile states. While poverty has decreased globally, progress on Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1 is slower in fragile states than in other developing countries. Fragile states are also off-track to meet the rest of the MDGs by 2015.
Fragile situations became a central concern of the international development and security agenda in the 1990s. Since then, powerful forces have been influencing the causes and manifestations of fragility, including the combination of democratic aspirations, new technologies, demographic shifts and climate change. The last five years have been especially tumultuous, encompassing the 2008 food, fuel and financial crisis and the Arab Spring, which began in 2011.These events have influenced the international debate on the nature, relevance and implications of fragility. While situations of fragility clearly have common elements – including poverty, inequality and vulnerability – how can we make sense of the great diversity in their national income, endowment in natural resources or historical trajectories? How do we move towards a more substantive concept of fragility that goes beyond a primary focus on the quality of government policies and institutions to include a broader picture of the economy and society? This publication takes stock of i) the evolution of fragility as a concept, ii) analyses of financial flows to and within fragile states between 2000 and 2010, and iii) trends and issues that are likely to shape fragility in the years to come.
The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) Annotated Glossary is a review of concepts central to societal decision making about radioactive waste management. It records the evolution in understanding that has taken place in the group as the FSC has worked with these concepts over time. This should be a useful resource not only for new FSC participants but also for others: this annotated glossary forms a good reference handbook for future texts regarding societal aspects of radioactive waste management and its governance.
This roadmap outlines emissions reduction potential from all technologies that can be implemented in the Indian cement industry. Taking into account the specificities of the Indian context, markets and opportunities, this roadmap outlines a possible transition path for the Indian cement industry to support the global goal of halving CO 2 emissions by 2050.
Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Denmark is the third in a series of reports looking at how the broader education, health, social and labour market policy challenges identified in Sick on the Job? Myths and Realities about Mental Health and Work (OECD, 2012) are being tackled in a number of OECD countries. It concludes that the Danish system has a number of strengths that have yet to be used in a more effective way, but also that quite a few changes are needed in order to raise the labour market particiption of people with mental ill-health.
L’érosion de la base d’imposition constitue un risque sérieux pour les recettes, la souveraineté et l’équité fiscales pour de nombreux pays. S’il existe de nombreux phénomènes susceptibles d’entraîner une érosion des bases fiscales nationales, le transfert de bénéfices n’est pas l’un des moindres. Le présent rapport s’ouvre sur une description des études et des données publiquement accessibles concernant l’existence et l’ampleur de ce phénomène, il donne ensuite un aperçu des évolutions internationales qui ont un impact sur l’imposition des sociétés, et identifie les principes fondamentaux sur lesquels repose l’imposition des activités transnationales, ainsi que les possibilités d’érosion de la base d’imposition et de transfert de bénéfices auxquelles ils peuvent éventuellement donner lieu. Le rapport conclut que les règles actuelles permettent d’accroître la part des bénéfices associés à des montages juridiques et à des droits et obligations incorporels, et de transférer légalement les risques au sein des groupes, avec pour conséquence de réduire la part des bénéfices associés aux opérations substantielles. Le rapport recommande de développer un plan d’action pour s’attaquer de manière compréhensive au problème de l’érosion de la base d’imposition et du transfert de bénéfices.