Meeting the growing demand for energy, and electricity in particular, while addressing the need to curb greenhouse gas emissions and to ensure security of energy supply, is one of the most difficult challenges facing the world’s economies. No single technology can respond to this challenge, and the solution which policy-makers are seeking lies in the diversification of energy sources.
Although nuclear energy currently provides over 20% of electricity in the OECD area and does not emit any carbon dioxide during production, it continues to be seen by many as a controversial technology. Public concern remains over its safety and the management of radioactive waste, and financing such a capital-intensive technology is a complex issue. The role that nuclear power will play in the future depends on the answers to these questions, several of which are provided in this up-to-date review of the status of nuclear energy, as well as on the outcome of research and development on the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor technologies.
This review of Estonia’s energy policies analyses the energy policy challenges and opportunities facing Estonia, and provides critiques and recommendations for future policy improvements. It finds that Estonia is actively seeking to reduce the intensity of its energy system. Many of these efforts are focused on oil shale, which the country has been using for almost a century and which meets 70% of its energy demand. While it provides a large degree of energy security, oil shale is highly carbon-intensive.
The government is seeking to lessen the negative environmental impact by phasing out old power plants and developing new technologies to reduce significantly CO2 emissions.
The efforts on oil shale complement Estonia’s solid track record of modernising its overall energy system. Since restoring its independence in 1991, Estonia has fully liberalised its electricity and gas markets and attained most national energy policy targets and commitments for 2020. It has also started preparing its energy strategy to 2030, with an outlook to 2050. Estonia is also promoting energy market integration with neighbouring EU member states.
In response to the ongoing economic crisis, Italy is undertaking a series of critically important reforms, combining pro-growth policies with severe austerity measures to achieve fiscal consolidation. The success of these structural reforms will rely heavily on the capacity of the government to restore trust in its ability and commitment to guide the country towards sustainable economic growth. At the time of this publication, however, less than a quarter of Italian citizens trusted the quality of government decision-making. Concerns over public integrity and corruption stand out as key elements underlying this prevailing lack of trust.
To restore the deficit of trust in the Italian government, the public sector needs to be embedded within a comprehensive integrity framework. Law 190 of November 6, 2012 (the Anti-Corruption Law) enshrines public sector integrity management and strengthens existing corruption prevention provisions through the designation of a new anti-corruption authority, a detailed framework for the adoption of a national anti-corruption plan, and new provisions regarding the conduct and prevention of conflict of interests in the public sector.
This OECD Integrity Review provides guidance on the implementation of key integrity and corruption prevention elements of the Law, most notably those concerning institutional coordination, the regulation of conduct and whistleblower protection, and management of integrity risks in public sector activities. The review concludes each chapter with proposals for action, with OECD member countries’ best practices in mind, with the ultimate goal of supporting Italy in its efforts to enhance integrity in the public sector and restore trust.
This book provides an overview of the key challenges currently faced in China and OECD's main policy recommendations to address them. Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, the book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of China, focusing on how its government can make reform happen.
This publication examines the critical issues surrounding water security (water shortage, water excess, inadequate water quality, the resilience of freshwater systems), providing a rationale for a risk-based approach and the management of trade-offs between water and other (sectoral and environmental) policies.
The report sets out a three-step process to “know”, “target” and “manage” water risks: (1) appraising the risks, (2) judging the tolerability and acceptability of risks and weighing risk-risk trade-offs, and (3) calibrating appropriate responses.
The publication provides policy analysis and guidance on the use of market-based instruments and the complex links between water security and other policy objectives, such as food security, energy security, climate mitigation and biodiversity protection.
Études économiques de l'OCDE : Colombie 2013 examine les développements récents, la politique et les perspectives économiques de ce pays. Ce rapport étudie plus en détail les inégalités, la productivité et la croissance.
Revenue bodies are increasingly focusing on improving their understanding of taxpayers and taking advantage of opportunities for collaboration where win-win situations exists. This is not least true for the large and heterogeneous SME segment, which in many countries has proven difficult and costly to administer with traditional approaches.
This Forum on Tax Administration study provides inspiration and guidance to revenue bodies wishing to explore the potential for improving outcomes, reducing costs, improving services and generating other benefits by engaging and involving SME taxpayers and stakeholders. The study provides a conceptual framework illustrating the benefits and situating the approach in the context of public sector reform, technological developments and trends in compliance risk management. It further provides a comprehensive review of current and emerging practices across the areas of information and guidance, compliance risk management, and systemic solutions. Finally the study provides guidance to support successful implementation.
The study finds that while revenue bodies have substantial experience to build on, there is also potential for more systematic, far-reaching and potentially transformative approaches. A key barrier in this regard is that performance metrics relying extensively on output measures channel resources and attention away from innovative approaches that work back from the desired ultimate outcomes.
This book provides guidance on a whole-of-revenue body approach for managing service demand effectively. It sets out a possible ‘model’ for governance arrangements based on leading revenue body practice – in this case the Australian Taxation Office—that has been examined and is supported by the FTA’s Taxpayer Services Sub-group. It also sets out practical steps in the form of a step-by-step framework to support revenue bodies in their efforts to better identify, analyse and address the causes of service demand.
The guide has been designed to support all revenue bodies, from those that are in the early stages of developing comprehensive service delivery programs to those with mature programs in place. While it focuses on the revenue body’s role in tax administration it acknowledges that some revenue bodies have a broader set of responsibilities, for example, in the administration of some social policies. This guide has not explored how such roles should integrate at a broader demand management level and revenue bodies will need to assess this issue, if relevant, having regard to their individual circumstances.
This report examines the relationship between large business taxpayers and revenue bodies, five years on from the publication of the FTA’s Study into the Role of Tax Intermediaries. The study recommended that revenue bodies develop a relationship based on trust and co-operation. The report is based on a detailed examination of the practical experiences of countries that have established this type of relationship.
The report finds that the pillars of an improved relationship highlighted in the Study remain valid. However, it identifies some additional features that are equally important: the part played by the tax control framework used by a large business in providing an objective basis for trust is emphasised. It also suggests that “co-operative compliance” is a better description of the recommended approach than the original “enhanced relationship” label.
The report addresses some questions that have been raised about the compatibility of the new approach with certain legal principles and discusses the internal governance of these programmes within revenue bodies. The importance of making a sound business case for the approach and how to measure the results of co-operative compliance programmes is addressed. The report concludes with some thoughts about the future direction of the co-operative compliance concept.
La présente Ligne directrice porte sur le danger de corrosion cutanée pour la santé humaine faisant suite à une exposition avec un produit chimique. La corrosion cutanée désigne la survenue de lésions irréversibles de la peau qui se manifestent par une nécrose visible, selon la définition du Système Général Harmonisé pour la Classification et l’Étiquetage des produits chimiques.
Cette Ligne directrice décrit une procédure in vitro permettant d’identifier les substances et mélanges corrosifs et non corrosifs, en s’appuyant sur la méthode d’essai de résistance électrique transcutanée (RET) pratiquée sur un épiderme de rat. Le produit chimique testé est appliqué sur des disques cutanés (au nombre de trois) pendant une durée n’excédant pas 24 heures. Les substances corrosives sont identifiées par leur capacité à produire une perte de l’intégrité du stratum corneum normal et de sa fonction de barrière, qui est mesurée par la réduction du RET au-dessous d'un seuil d'avertissement (5kΩ pour le rat). Une étape de coloration incorporée à la procédure d'essai permet de déterminer si l'augmentation de la perméabilité ionique est due à la destruction physique du stratum corneum.
Cette Ligne directrice comprend également un ensemble de normes de performance pour l’évaluation de méthodes d’essai (RET) similaires ou modifiées.