• 4-March-2013


    Fragile States - Resource Flows and Trends

    By 2015, half of the world’s people living on less than USD 1.25 a day will be in fragile states. While poverty has decreased globally, progress on Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1 is slower in fragile states than in other developing countries. Fragile states are also off-track to meet the rest of the MDGs by 2015.

    Fragile situations became a central concern of the international development and security agenda in the 1990s. Since then, powerful forces have been influencing the causes and manifestations of fragility, including the combination of democratic aspirations, new technologies, demographic shifts and climate change. The last five years have been especially tumultuous, encompassing the 2008 food, fuel and financial crisis and the Arab Spring, which began in 2011.

    These events have influenced the international debate on the nature, relevance and implications of fragility. While situations of fragility clearly have common elements – including poverty, inequality and vulnerability – how can we make sense of the great diversity in their national income, endowment in natural resources or historical trajectories? How do we move towards a more substantive concept of fragility that goes beyond a primary focus on the quality of government policies and institutions to include a broader picture of the economy and society?

    This publication takes stock of i) the evolution of fragility as a concept, ii) analyses of financial flows to and within fragile states between 2000 and 2010, and iii) trends and issues that are likely to shape fragility in the years to come.
  • 1-March-2013


    Stakeholder Confidence in Radioactive Waste Management - An Annotated Glossary of Key Terms

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) Annotated Glossary is a review of concepts central to societal decision making about radioactive waste management. It records the evolution in understanding that has taken place in the group as the FSC has worked with these concepts over time. This should be a useful resource not only for new FSC participants but also for others: this annotated glossary forms a good reference handbook for future texts regarding societal aspects of radioactive waste management and its governance.

  • 28-February-2013


    Low-Carbon Technology for the Indian Cement Industry

    This roadmap outlines emissions reduction potential from all technologies that can be implemented in the Indian cement industry. Taking into account the specificities of the Indian context, markets and opportunities, this roadmap outlines a possible transition path for the Indian cement industry to support the global goal of halving CO 2 emissions by 2050.

  • 25-February-2013


    Mental Health and Work: Denmark

    Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Denmark is the third in a series of reports looking at how the broader education, health, social and labour market policy challenges identified in Sick on the Job? Myths and Realities about Mental Health and Work (OECD, 2012) are being tackled in a number of OECD countries. It concludes that the Danish system has a number of strengths that have yet to be used in a more effective way, but also that quite a few changes are needed in order to raise the labour market particiption of people with mental ill-health.

  • 19-février-2013


    Lutter contre l'érosion de la base d'imposition et le transfert de bénéfices

    L’érosion de la base d’imposition constitue un risque sérieux  pour les recettes, la souveraineté et l’équité fiscales pour de nombreux pays. S’il existe de nombreux phénomènes susceptibles d’entraîner une érosion des bases fiscales nationales, le transfert de bénéfices n’est pas l’un des moindres. Le présent rapport s’ouvre sur une description des études et des données publiquement accessibles concernant l’existence et l’ampleur de ce phénomène, il donne ensuite un aperçu des évolutions internationales qui ont un impact sur l’imposition des sociétés, et identifie les principes fondamentaux sur lesquels repose l’imposition des activités transnationales, ainsi que les possibilités d’érosion de la base d’imposition et de transfert de bénéfices auxquelles ils peuvent éventuellement donner lieu. Le rapport conclut que les règles actuelles permettent d’accroître la part des bénéfices associés à des montages juridiques et à des droits et obligations incorporels, et de transférer légalement les risques au sein des groupes, avec pour conséquence de réduire la part des bénéfices associés aux opérations substantielles. Le rapport recommande de développer un plan d’action pour s’attaquer de manière compréhensive au problème de l’érosion de la base d’imposition et du transfert de bénéfices.


  • 11-février-2013


    Modèle de Convention fiscale concernant le revenu et la fortune 2010 (Version complète)

    Cette publication est la huitième édition de la version complète du Modèle de Convention fiscale concernant le revenu et la fortune publié par l’OCDE. Cette édition contient le texte intégral du Modèle de Convention fiscale concernant le revenu et la fortune tel qu’il se lisait le 22 juillet 2010, y compris les articles et les commentaires correspondants, les positions des économies non membres, la Recommandation du Conseil de l’OCDE, les notes historiques (remontant désormais jusqu’à 1963), la liste détaillée des conventions conclues entre les pays membres de l’OCDE et les rapports antérieurs. Cette édition de la version complète est la première à être publiée sous forme d’ouvrage relié. L’édition précédente présentée sous forme de classeurs n’est plus publiée.

    La version abrégée de 2010, publiée antérieurement et également disponible, contient uniquement les articles, les commentaires, les positions des économies non membres et la Recommandation du Conseil de l’OCDE.

  • 5-February-2013


    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Sweden 2013

    Sweden has made progress in recent years towards a more secure, sustainable energy future. The Scandinavian nation already has an almost carbon-free electricity supply and has phased out oil use in residential and power sectors. It is increasingly integrated within the Nordic and Baltic electricity markets, and its joint renewable electricity certificate market with Norway offers a unique model for other countries.

    Now Sweden must take concrete steps to realise its vision of a fossil-fuel-independent vehicle fleet by 2030 and no net greenhouse-gas emissions by 2050. Although Sweden has decided to allow the replacement of its existing nuclear reactors, further emission reductions will come at a higher cost and require technology change. This means Sweden will need to carefully evaluate the most cost-effective pathways for its transition to a low-carbon economy.

    Sweden has a high energy-intensity level, which requires greater energy efficiency in industry, buildings, heat and transport.  A decarbonisation vision should be mapped out for each industry sector. Starting with transport, Sweden must specify how it will wean its vehicle fleet from fossil fuels by 2030.

    Sweden’s industry lead in smart grids is an asset. Sweden should scale up investment in clean energy technologies. As all Nordic countries decarbonise, cost-effective regional solutions can control consumers’ costs. The large-scale deployment of renewable and energy technologies in a common Northern European energy market can drive decarbonisation without comprising competitiveness, security of supply and affordability.

    This review analyses the energy-policy challenges currently facing Sweden, and provides studies and recommendations for each sector.

  • 5-February-2013


    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Sweden 2012

    This OECD Review of Innovation Policy for Sweden offers a comprehensive assessment of Sweden's  innovation system, focusing on the role of government. It provides concrete recommendations on how to improve policies that affect innovation performance, including R&D policies, and identifies good practices from which other countries can learn.
  • 5-February-2013


    Brazil's Supreme Audit Institution - The Audit of the Consolidated Year-end Government Report

    Supreme audit institutions have a distinct role in supporting the development of a more strategic and forward looking state. This report assesses the role of Brazil's SAI – the Federal Court of Accounts (Tribunal de Contas da União or TCU) – in enhancing accountability and informing decision making within the federal government. The review focuses specifically on the audit of the Consolidated Year end Government Report (Prestação de Contas da Presidenta de República or PCPR). Although the TCU is a well respected independent government institution and completes the audit of the PCPR in line with constitutional provisions and international best practice,  several challenges remain. Deepening TCU understanding of challenges and barriers affecting the use of its audit – especially by the legislature – is critical for enhancing accountability and informing decision making.  Moreover, framing clearly and concisely the main findings will make the TCU work audit more accessible and elevate the imperative for action. Creating a more explicit and co-ordinated TCU communication strategy will also improve the value and benefit of the audit findings.
  • 4-February-2013


    Waiting Time Policies in the Health Sector - What Works?

    Over the past decade, many OECD countries have introduced new policies to tackle excessive waiting times for elective surgery with some success. However, in the wake of the recent economic downturn and severe pressures on public budgets, waiting times times may rise again, and it is important to understand which policies work.  In addition, the European Union has introduced new regulations to allow patients to seek care in other member states, if there are long delays in treatment.   This book provides a framework to understand why there are waiting lists for elective surgery in some OECD countries and not in others. It also describes how waiting times are measured in OECD countries, which differ widely, and makes recommendations for best practice. Finally, it reviews different policy approaches to tackling excessive waiting times. Some countries have introduced guarantees to patients that they will not wait too long for treatment. These policies work only if they are accompanied by sanctions on health providers to ensure the guarantee is met or if they allow greater choice of health-care providers including the private sector. Many countries have also introduced policies to expand supply of surgical services, but these policies have generally not succeeded in the long-term in bringing down waiting times. Given the increasing demand for elective surgery, some countries have experimented with policies to improve priorisation of who is entitled to elective surgery. These policies are promising, but difficult to implement.
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