With 22% of the national population (11.2 million inhabitants), the Gauteng city-region is the largest and richest region in South Africa, contributing to one-third of national GDP. The area encompasses a series of connected cities, including Johannesburg and the national capital of Tshwane (formerly Pretoria), that function as a single, integrated region. Gauteng has been South Africa’s growth engine: for every additional 1% growth in population in the province, 1.6% is added to its contribution to national growth, implying higher productivity than in other parts of the country. Nevertheless, the city-region’s growth potential is constrained by deep socio-economic challenges, including high unemployment (26.9%) and low productivity growth. Its rapid demographic and economic development has also reinforced the spatial segregation instituted under apartheid.
Against the backdrop of South Africa’s achievements since the fall of apartheid, this Review evaluates measures to position economic development policy and to confront economic inequality in Gauteng. The issues of adequate housing as a catalyst of economic development and a vehicle for socioeconomic integration, transport mobility and public service delivery are examined in detail. The Review also assesses the economic growth potential of the manufacturing and green sectors, as well as governance issues, focussing on the potential of intergovernmental collaboration in advancing a cross-cutting regional approach for Gauteng.
Ce rapport examine comment l’ensemble de nos politiques peuvent être mises au service de nos objectifs communs en matière de développement. Il est centré sur les domaines qui requièrent une action collective de la communauté internationale tout entière et apporte un complément aux travaux récurrents sur l’efficacité de l’aide et le suivi des apports d’aide.
Nous posons deux hypothèses de départ. Premièrement, les politiques visant les différents domaines – depuis le commerce et l’investissement jusqu’à la fiscalité et la transparence fiscale, en passant par le gouvernement des entreprises, le changement climatique, la sécurité des ressources et la politique sociale – ont de profondes répercussions sur les chances de concrétisation des objectifs de développement durable. Deuxièmement, si ces politiques nécessitent une action de la part des gouvernements nationaux et des organisations régionales dans les pays développés aussi bien qu’en développement, elles requièrent également, compte tenu de l’interdépendance qui caractérise le monde actuel, une action collective de la communauté internationale tout entière.
Le rapport aborde 18 thèmes, s’articulant autour de quatre grands axes : croissance économique durable, gouvernance économique, environnement et sécurité des ressources naturelles, et société. Considérés dans leur ensemble, ces différents volets reflètent la mission de l’OCDE, qui consiste à promouvoir « des politiques meilleures pour une vie meilleure ». Chaque thème est organisé autour des trois sections suivantes :
This 2011 review of energy policy in Greece finds that increasing competition and reducing the role of the state in the energy sector should add efficiency and dynamism to the economy. This, in turn, should help generate self-sustained employment and prosperity for the country.
Reforming the electricity and gas markets is an economic and political imperative. In particular, regulatory authorities must be given the necessary power and independence to reduce the market power of dominant firms. Commendably, Greece adopted a law to this end in August 2011. The envisaged reforms are fundamentally sound and can help the economy grow. The governmentfs key focus should now be on implementing this law in full without delay.
Greece has a large potential for wind and solar energy and is rightly determined to fulfill this potential. The renewable energy sector also provides opportunities for new industrial development, in particular if linked with R&D activities. To facilitate renewable energy projects, the government recently improved investment conditions significantly by increasing feed-in tariffs, shortening and simplifying the licensing procedures and introducing stronger incentives for local acceptance.
Greecefs oil and gas sources are already well diversified. Gas use is projected to increase, as the country moves to decarbonise its coal-dominated power sector. Experience from IEA member countries has shown that enhancing energy efficiency can help improve energy security in a cost-effective way. This, in turn, can help mitigate climate change and deliver economic benefits.
The effects of globalisation have been at the forefront of public debate in recent years, fuelled on the one hand by the large benefits of integrated markets, and on the other hand, by the detrimental adjustment effects often experienced by many economies as a result. Knowing how trade has been evolving over time and the role policy has played in this evolution are critical to understanding the globalisation debate and grasping the lessons for future policy development. The comparative advantage hypothesis has been suggested as one of the principal explanations of international trade and of the benefits associated with openness. It has also provided the intellectual underpinnings for most trade policy in the past 50 years. This book collects OECD work that builds on recent contributions to the theory and empirics of comparative advantage, putting particular emphasis on the role policy can play in shaping trade.
On the occasion of its 35th Anniversary in 2009, the International Energy Agency published the first edition of the Scoreboard focusing on 35 Key Energy Trends over 35 Years. In parallel, the IEA published Implementing Energy Efficiency Policies: Are IEA Member Countries on Track?. Both publications found that although IEA member countries were making progress in implementing energy efficiency, more work was needed.
In the 2011 edition of the Scoreboard, the IEA has decided to focus on energy efficiency. The publication combines analysis of energy efficiency policy implementation and recent indicator development. The resulting Scoreboard 2011 provides a fuller picture of the progress as well as the challenges with implementing energy efficiency policy in IEA member countries.
Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, the Better Policies series tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of member and partner countries, focusing on how governments can make reform happen.
This publication examines the effects of taxation on employment, highlights the resulting policy challenges, and discusses the ways governments endeavour to address these challenges. Chapter 1 provides a broad overview of the effects of taxation on employment, examining how taxes on labour income can affect both the size of the labour force and the level of unemployment, and highlighting key areas of concern for tax policy makers. This analysis is then augmented in chapters 2-4 by the more detailed analysis of the effects of taxation on the employment of three groups where empirical research suggests that responses of labour supply to taxation may be relatively large: low-income workers, mobile highly-skilled workers, and older workers. As well as highlighting key areas of concern for tax policy makers, the report places a particular focus on the different measures that have been adopted by countries to attempt to overcome these problems, discussing, where possible, the main design features, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches that have been adopted.
A System of Health Accounts 2011 provides a systematic description of the financial flows related to the consumption of health care goods and services. As demands for information increase and more countries implement and institutionalise health accounts according to the system, the data produced are expected to be more comparable, more detailed and more policy relevant.
This new edition builds on the original OECD Manual, published in 2000, and the Guide to Producing National Health Accounts to create a single global framework for producing health expenditure accounts that can help track resource flows from sources to uses. The Manual is the result of a four-year collaborative effort between the OECD, WHO and the European Commission, and sets out in more detail the boundaries, the definitions and the concepts – responding to health care systems around the globe – from the simplest to the more complicated.