Expanding airport capacity in large metropolitan areas is difficult. Community agreements on noise constrain growth at existing airports. Land prices can be prohibitive for relocating airports. Most new sites require extensive investment in surface transport links to city centres. In multi-airport regions, options for expansion at the airports are to an extent interdependent, complicating assessment of whether to build new runways.
Many major airports are hubs for network carriers at the same time as serving a large local market. The complementarity between these functions may be a prerequisite for viable network operations, suggesting that distributing services over multiple airports instead of expanding the main hub would be costly. Hub airports and their network carriers often compete with hubs in neighbouring regions. The strategies of network carriers and potential new entrants to this part of the market need to be taken into account in assessing future demand for airport capacity. The requirements of low cost and other point-to-point carriers are equally important, but different.
This report reviews international experience in reconciling planning and environmental constraints with demand for airport capacity and the potential benefits in terms of productivity and growth from developing international airline services. Experience is compared in London, New York, Tokyo, Osaka, Sydney and in Germany’s main airports with particular attention to the dynamics of airline markets and implications for airport planning in multi-airport cities.
This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth labour market and education system in Brazil. It takes an international comparative perspective, offering policy options to help improve school-to-work transitions. It also provides an opportunity for other countries to learn from the innovative measures that Brazil has taken to strengthen the skills of youth and their employment outcomes.
The International Energy Agency's 2014 review of Austria’s energy policy analyses the energy policy challenges facing Austria and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It finds that Austria's energy policy rests on three pillars – security of supply, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources.
The country’s decarbonisation drive has strengthened as the economy and renewable energy use have continued to grow, while fossil fuel use has decreased. Notably, Austria has more than tripled the public funding for energy research, development and demonstration since 2007.
Greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, which peaked in 2005, still need to be reduced further, and the transport sector offers prime opportunities for this. In the context of EU negotiations on an energy and climate policy framework to 2030, Austria should develop a strategy that also integrates security of supply and internal market dimensions.
Closer cross-border integration of both electricity and natural gas markets and systems is required to build a single European market. This calls for increased co-ordination and co-operation with neighbouring countries. Austria should also encourage investment in networks, optimise demand response and integrate variable renewable energy supply in a cost-effective and market-based manner.
A well-functioning internal market can help reduce the growing concerns over energy prices and costs, both for industry and for citizens. Austria could address these concerns also by implementing more energy efficiency measures and facilitating greater retail market competition.
Au cours des 10-15 dernières années, la croissance des déplacements automobiles s’est ralentie dans plusieurs économies à revenu élevé, et elle s’est même interrompue, voire inversée, dans un certain nombre d’entre eux. S’inspirant des travaux et des discussions présentés à la table ronde du FIT sur l’évolution à long terme de la demande de transport, qui s’est tenue en novembre 2012, le présent livre fournit des éléments d’information sur les causes connues de la modification des taux de croissance et examine les lacunes des connaissances actuelles, les explications hypothétiques et les implications pour l’action des pouvoirs publics.
This book provides an overview of the key challenges faced by China and OECD's main policy recommendations to address them. Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, the book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of China, focusing on how its government can make reform happen.
This roadmap aims to increase understanding among a range of stakeholders of the applications that electricity and thermal energy storage technologies can be used for at different locations in the energy system. Emphasis is placed on storage technologies that are connected to a larger energy system (e.g. electricity grid), while a smaller portion of the discussion focuses on off-grid storage applications. This focus is complemented by a discussion of the existing technology, policy, and economic barriers that hinder energy storage deployment. Specific actions that can be taken to remove these obstacles are identified for key energy system stakeholder groups.
This brochure is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. This is the first OECD brochure which is based on a Codex Standard. It interprets the first international standard on pomegranates, which was adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 2013. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of this new standard. This new brochure illustrates the standard text and demonstrates the quality parameters on high quality photographs. Thus, it is a valuable tool for the inspection authorities, professional bodies and traders interested in international trade in pomegranates. The brochure also includes a USB key containing the hyperlinked electronic version of the publication, as well as all illustrative materials in high definition photographs. .
This How2Guide for Wind Energy (Wind H2G) is designed to provide interested stakeholders from both government and industry with the necessary tools to plan and implement a roadmap for wind energy technology at the national or regional level.
Employment and Skills Strategies in Ireland focuses on the role of local employment and training agencies in contributing to job creation and productivity. This report looks at the range of institutions and bodies involved in employment and skills policies, focusing on local activities in the Dublin and South East regions. It can help national, regional and local policy makers in Ireland build effective and sustainable partnerships at the local level, which join-up efforts and achieve stronger outcomes across employment, training, and economic development policies. The report is part of a comparative OECD review of local job creation policies, which explores how countries are putting measures in place at the local level to stimulate quality employment, social inclusion and growth.
This report assesses the extent to which Dutch water governance is fit for future challenges and sketches an agenda for the reform of water policies in the Netherlands. It builds on a one-year policy dialogue with over 100 Dutch stakeholders, supported by robust analytical work and drawing on international best practice.