Publications


  • 19-October-2012

    English

    Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries: Ukraine 2012

    Ukraine’s energy sector faces unprecedented challenges, from a heavy reliance on expensive fossil-fuel imports to inefficient infrastructure and markets. Yet there is also potential for Ukraine to experience an energy revolution, one that could boost employment, lift economic growth and enhance energy security. Modernisation of Ukraine’s energy-supply sectors has only begun and will require investment on a huge scale, complemented by a fundamental reform of the business environment. A strong dependency on oil and gas imports and often-inefficient energy production, transportation and supply sectors means that reducing energy demand must be a greater priority. The potential for energy efficiency gains in the residential, district heating and industrial sectors is large. Endowed with large conventional energy reserves, alongside sizeable renewable potential, Ukraine can build the capacity to significantly increase its resource production.

    Releasing this potential will require deep regulatory reform and full implementation of international treaty provisions. Effective competition, alongside a progressive move towards market prices, will also help Ukraine attract investment to develop the sector. A draft energy strategy, which sets out a series of supply-side measures, was published in 2012. Broadening and implementing a comprehensive energy strategy, one that takes greater account of demand-side policies, could significantly improve progress in the medium term.

    This review analyses the large energy-policy challenges facing Ukraine and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide policy makers in the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  • 19-October-2012

    English

    OECD Review of Agricultural Policies: Indonesia 2012

    This Review, undertaken in close co-operation with the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture, assesses the performance of Indonesian agriculture over the last two decades, evaluates Indonesian agricultural policy reforms and provides recommendations to address key challenges in the future. The evaluation is based on the OECD Committee for Agriculture’s approach that agriculture policy should be evidence-based and carefully designed and implemented to support productivity, competitiveness and sustainability, while avoiding unnecessary distortions to production decisions and to trade. Conducted in partnership with the OECD Investment Committee, the Review comprises a special chapter highlighting key challenges to be addressed to attract sustainable investment in agriculture, drawing from the OECD Policy Framework for Investment in Agriculture.

  • 19-October-2012

    English

    OECD Reviews of Health Care Quality: Israel 2012 - Raising Standards

    At a time when ever more information is available about the quality of health care, the challenge for policy makers is to better understand the policies and approaches that sit behind the numbers. This book examines whether care in Israel is safe, effective and responsive to patients’ needs. It examines what works and what does not work, both to benchmark the efforts of countries and to provide advice on reforms to improve quality of health care.

  • 17-October-2012

    English

    Sustainable Materials Management - Making Better Use of Resources

    Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) is increasingly recognised as a policy approach that can make a key contribution to green growth and the challenges that are posed by sustained global economic and demogarphic growth. One of the key challenges of the SMM approach is to effectively address the environmental impacts that can occur along the life-cycle of materials, which frequently extends across borders and involves a multitude of different economic actors.   This book outlines a series of policy principles for SMM, examines how to set and use targets for SMM, and explores various policy instruments for SMM.  In addition it provides examples of policy action plans from the UK and the Netherlands, before presenting a series of conclusions and recommendations.
  • 15-October-2012

    English

    Addressing the Competitiveness Challenges in Germany and the Euro Area

    Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, this book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of Germany and the Euro Area, focusing on how their governments can make reform happen.
     

  • 15-October-2012

    English

    India: Sustaining High and Inclusive Growth

    Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, this book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of India, focusing on how its government can make reform happen.
     

  • 4-October-2012

    English

    OECD Internet Economy Outlook 2012

    The Internet is now a fundamental infrastructure supporting the economy and is firmly in its 2nd stage of development, having evolved from a data network connecting PCs with wires to a much broader network of new portable devices from mobile phones to tablet computers. It is also on the cusp of a much larger expansion to objects that typically did not have communications capabilities: the “Internet of things” is projected to have more connections than the people using them. This raises many important socio-economic and political issues for stakeholders to consider, as economies and societies become increasingly inter-meshed.

    Supported by time series data, this publication begins with an overview of trends and highlights how the Internet sector has proven to be resilient during the recent economic crisis. It then examines the various drivers and impacts of Internet use and deployment, as well as emerging technologies, broadband, e-commerce, e-health, digital content, security and privacy, and reflects on a methodology for measuring the Internet economy.

  • 2-October-2012

    English

    Bioenergy for Heat and Power

    The Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power highlights the importance of bioenergy in providing heat in the buildings sector and in industry, and shows what contribution it could make to meeting steadlily growing world electricity demand. The critical role of sustainability as well as the importance of international trade in meeting the projected demand for bioenergy, are highlighted in the roadmap, as well as the need for large-scale biomass plants in providing The roadmap identifies key actions by different stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, and sets out milestones for technology development in order to achieve a doubling of global bioenergy supply by 2050. It addresses the need for further R&D efforts, highlights measures to ensure sustainability of biomass production, and underlines the need for international collaboration to enhance the production and use of sustainable, modern bioenergy in different world regions.

  • 2-octobre-2012

    Français

    Essai n° 457 : Essai de transactivation faisant appel au récepteur des œstrogènes BG1Luc pour identifier les agonistes ou antagonistes des récepteurs des œstrogènes

    La présente Ligne directrice pour les essais décrit un essai in vitro qui permet d’obtenir des données de type concentration-réponse avec des substances qui présentent une activité agoniste ou antagoniste sur les récepteurs des estrogènes (ER) in vitro. Le système d’essai fait appel à la une lignée cellulaire BG1Luc4E2, dérivée d’adénocarcinome ovarien d’origine humaine et transfectée de façon stable avec un gène rapporteur de la luciférase répondant aux ER. Cette lignée cellulaire permet d’évaluer la transactivation médiée à la fois par les ER et les ERß. Les cellules, déposées dans des plaques de culture tissulaire à 96 puits, sont exposées à 7 (essai préliminaire) et 11 (essai complet) concentrations non cytotoxiques de la substance à tester. Une durée d’exposition de 19-24 heures permet la synthèse du produit du gène rapporteur (luciférase). Son activité est mésurée par un luminomètre. L’acceptation ou le rejet d’un essai dépendent de l’évaluation des résultats obtenus avec l’étalon de référence et les témoins pour chacune des expériences menées dans la plaque 96 puits. Une réponse positive est caractérisée par une courbe concentration-réponse comprenant au moins trois points dont les barres d’erreurs ne se chevauchent pas, ainsi qu’une différence d’amplitude (unités relatives de luminescence normalisées) d’au moins 20 % par rapport à la valeur maximale obtenue pour la substance de référence (17-œstradiol pour l’essai agoniste, mélange chlorhydrate de raloxifène/17-œstradiol pour l’essai antagoniste).

  • 2-octobre-2012

    Français

    Essai n° 443 : Étude étendue de toxicité pour la reproduction sur une génération

    Cette Ligne directrice est élaborée en vue de permettre l’évaluation des effets pré- et postnataux d’une exposition aux produits chimiques, sur la reproduction et le développement, ainsi que l’examen de la toxicité systémique chez les femelles gravides et allaitantes ainsi que chez la descendance (petits et adultes). Dans cet essai, des groupes de rongeurs mâles et femelles sexuellement matures (génération parentale P) sont exposés en continu à une gradation de doses de la substance d’essai. L’exposition commence 2 semaines avant l’accouplement et se poursuit  pendant la période d’accouplement, la gestation et jusqu’au sevrage des portées (génération F1). Au moment du sevrage, les petits F1 sont sélectionnés et affectés au hasard à une cohorte d’animaux pour effectuer des essais de toxicité pour la reproduction/le développement (cohorte 1), des essais de neurotoxicité pour le développement (cohorte 2) et des essais d’immunotoxicité pour le développement (cohorte 3). La descendance F1 reçoit encore la substance d’essai du sevrage jusqu’à l’âge adulte. Tous les animaux subissent un examen clinique et pathologique destiné à mettre en évidence des signes de toxicité ; cet examen s’attache particulièrement à l’intégrité et au fonctionnement des appareils reproducteurs mâles et femelles ainsi qu’à la santé, la croissance, le développement et la fonction reproductrice de la descendance. Une partie de la cohorte 1 (cohorte 1B) peut ensuite être étendue à des animaux de génération F2 ; dans ce cas, les protocoles pour les animaux F1 seront les mêmes que pour les animaux P.

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