Cette publication présente des données sous forme d'indicateurs et privilégie les comparaisons entre pays. L'objectif est de rendre les comptes nationaux plus accessibles et plus informatifs et dans un même temps de fournir les informations les plus pertinentes concernant les définitions et les problèmes de comparabilité inhérents à chaque indicateur.
L'éventail des indicateurs a volontairement été établi de façon assez large afin de refléter la richesse des Bases de données de l'OCDE sur les comptes nationaux. Cette large sélection a également pour objet d'inciter les utilisateurs à porter leur attention sur d'autres indicateurs que le célèbre PIB. Certains travaux récents ont joué un rôle déterminant dans le choix des indicateurs. Le rapport de la commission sur la mesure des performances économiques et du progrès social (Commission Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi) est un exemple particulièrement marquant.
Renewables Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in OECD countries, including 2014 provisional data. It provides an overview of the development of renewables and waste in the world over the 1990 to 2013 period. A greater focus is given to the OECD countries with a review of electricity generation and capacity from renewable and waste energy sources, including detailed tables. However, an overview of developments in the world and OECD renewable and waste market is also presented. The publication encompasses energy indicators, generating capacity, electricity and heat production from renewable and waste sources, as well as production and consumption of renewables and waste.
Renewables Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Coal Information, Electricity Information, Natural Gas Information and Oil Information.
Electricity Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in the OECD electricity sector, including 2014 provisional data. It provides an overview of the world electricity developments in 2013 covering world electricity and heat production, input fuel mix, supply and consumption, and electricity imports and exports. More detail is provided for the 34 OECD countries with information covering production, installed capacity, input energy mix to electricity and heat production, consumption, electricity trades, input fuel prices and end-user electricity prices as well as monthly OECD production and trade electricity data for 2014. It provides comprehensive statistical details on overall energy consumption, economic indicators, electricity and heat production by energy form and plant type, electricity imports and exports, sectoral energy and electricity consumption, as well as prices for electricity and electricity input fuels for each country and regional aggregate.
Electricity Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Coal Information, Natural Gas Information, Oil Information and Renewables Information.
Natural Gas Information is a detailed reference work on gas supply and demand covering not only OECD countries but also the rest of the world. This publication contains essential information on LNG and pipeline trade, gas reserves, storage capacity and prices.
The main part of the book, however, concentrates on OECD countries, showing a detailed supply and demand balance for each country and for the three OECD regions: Americas, Asia-Oceania and Europe, as well as a breakdown of gas consumption by end user. Import and export data are reported by source and destination.
Natural Gas Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publication on major energy sources; other reports are Coal Information, Electricity Information, Oil Information and Renewables Information.
Ensuring energy security is a core responsibility of the International Energy Agency and a priority for its member countries. To this end, the ability to respond quickly and effectively in the event of a supply disruption is essential. Energy Supply Security 2014: The Emergency Response of IEA Countries provides an overview of the most recent oil and natural gas emergency policy reviews of the 29 IEA member countries as well as those of key partners such as Chile, China, India and ASEAN. The publication assesses each country’s emergency arrangements for security of supply of oil and gas, their stockholding structure, demand restraint measures and fuel switching capacity, and also provides a summary of energy security best practices among the IEA membership and beyond.
Although the IEA was initially created to focus on oil supply security, energy markets have evolved, with other fuels playing increasingly important roles in the global energy mix. Thus, natural gas is highlighted in this publication, including assessments of measures to respond to and offset potential supply disruptions. Due to the increasing dependence of modern societies on reliable and secure electricity supplies, this publication also includes an overview of the electricity security assessment framework recently developed by the IEA for the purposes of strengthening countries’ electricity security.
Uruguay has made remarkable progress over the past decade. Stable macroeconomic policies and a favourable external environment have permitted brisk growth and the financing of social policies. Substantial improvements in several dimensions of human well-being have occurred during this period, alongside considerable reductions in external risks. The conditions ahead, however, may present challenges to maintaining performance. Overcoming these challenges will require finding the appropriate balance between long run objectives and macroeconomic and fiscal stability.
One of the main obstacles to economic growth is the insufficient and inadequate provision of human capital and skills. A number of challenges remain for education, which, together with fiscal policy, are key means of reducing inequalities and sustaining economic growth. In addition, Uruguay needs to address labour shortages to avoid constraints on future growth, especially as exports become more skills-intensive. It is important to orient social policies and expenditures towards the most vulnerable groups.
New nanomaterials offer promising avenues for future innovation, which can contribute towards the sustainability and resource efficiency of the tyre industry. Yet uncertainty over environmental health and safety (EHS) risks appears to be a main and continuous concern for the development of new nanomaterials in tyre production, even for those closest to market. Lack of sector-specific guidance represents a major gap.
Oil Information is a comprehensive reference book on current developments in oil supply and demand. The first part of this publication contains key data on world production, trade, prices and consumption of major oil product groups, with time series back to the early 1970s.
The second part gives a more detailed and comprehensive picture of oil supply, demand, trade, production and consumption by end-user for each OECD country individually and for the OECD regions. Trade data are reported extensively by origin and destination.
Oil Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Coal Information, Electricity Information, Natural Gas Information and Renewables Information.
This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Luxembourg and provides recommendations for each sector. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future and the development of its 2030 energy strategy.
It finds that since 2008, Luxembourg’s energy policy has focused on mitigating CO2 emissions in transport and industry and on supporting renewable energies and energy efficiency towards 2020. Luxembourg’s greenhouse gas emissions have stabilised as energy-intensive industries have scaled back their activities and the government put strong energy efficiency policies in place, notably for buildings.
Since 2009, the country’s research and development (R&D) policies have promoted eco-innovation and clean energy technologies. In 2012, government spending on energy R&D as a ratio of gross domestic product was the highest among IEA members. Luxembourg is creating a national platform for smart meters and electric vehicles, the first of its kind country-wide roll out.
Nonetheless, Luxembourg faces several energy challenges. Oil consumption in transport is rising because of growing road fuel sales, largely the result of tax differences to neighbouring countries. This increases Luxembourg’s emissions and its oil stockholding needs. Because the country imports all of its energy needs, energy security is a priority. Luxembourg has sought to address this through greater regional integration such as merging its gas market with Belgium and increasing its electricity interconnection with France and Belgium. Yet the benefits of regional integration of wholesale energy markets have not yet translated to retail markets. Moreover, as regional electricity trade grows and neighbouring countries introduce ambitious decarbonisation policies and capacity markets, Luxembourg will need to define its priorities for an energy strategy through 2030.
This regulatory guidance booklet describes the characteristics of an effective nuclear safety regulator in terms of roles and responsibilities, principles and attributes. Each of the characteristics discussed in this report is a necessary feature of an effective nuclear safety regulator but no one characteristic is sufficient on its own. It is the combination of these characteristics that leads to the effectiveness of a nuclear regulatory body. The report provides a unique resource to countries with existing, mature regulators and can be used for benchmarking as well as training and developing staff. It will also be useful for new entrant countries in the process of developing and maintaining an effective nuclear safety regulator.