Under Action 14, countries have committed to implement a minimum standard to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the mutual agreement procedure (MAP). The MAP is included in Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention and commits countries to endeavour to resolve disputes related to the interpretation and application of tax treaties. The Action 14 Minimum Standard has been translated into specific terms of reference and a methodology for the peer review and monitoring process. The minimum standard is complemented by a set of best practices.
The peer review process is conducted in two stages. Stage 1 assesses countries against the terms of reference of the minimum standard according to an agreed schedule of review. Stage 2 focuses on monitoring the follow-up of any recommendations resulting from jurisdictions' stage 1 peer review report. This report reflects the outcome of the stage 1 peer review of the implementation of the Action 14 Minimum Standard by the United States, which is accompanied by a document addressing the implementation of best practices.
Many people would not consider schools among the most innovative institutions of modern societies. This perception is not entirely accurate, since education is innovating in many ways in order to meet the demands of the 21st century economies and societies. But teachers and schools cannot do it alone. They should be seen as actors and partners in broader ecosystems of innovation and learning at the local and regional levels. Schools are networking organisations, making important contributions to the regional economy and local community. Businesses, industry, organisations and communities can help and support schools, and can also benefit from their roles in learning, knowledge development and innovation.
This report serves as the background report to the third Global Education Industry Summit which was held on 25-26 September 2017 in Luxembourg. On the basis of recent OECD analysis, it discusses innovation in education, schools driving progress and well-being in communities, the role of industry and employers in supporting schools and suggests policies towards better ecosystems of learning and innovation. The report argues for better networking and partnerships between schools, regional industries and local communities.
Agriculture is expected to face increasing water risks that will impact production, markets, trade and food security - risks that can be mitigated with targeted policy actions on water hotspots. This report develops the hotspot approach, provides an application at the global scale, and presents a mitigation policy action plan. The People’s Republic of China, India and the United States are identified as countries facing the greatest water risks for agriculture production globally.
A global simulation shows that, in the absence of action, water risks in Northeast China, Northwest India and the Southwest United States in particular could have significant production, price and trade consequences. Agriculture water risks could also result in broader socio-economic and food security concerns. Farmers, agro food companies, and governments can all play a role in responding to water risks at hotspot locations. A three-tier policy action plan is proposed to confront water risk hotspots, encompassing targeted responses, adapted national policies, strengthened market integration and international collaboration.
The report, building on a policy dialogue with a range of stakeholders in Korea, analyses how economic policy instruments under the responsibility of the Korean Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport can be adjusted to contribute to water policy objectives. It also investigates how Smart Water Management Korea, an initiative by K-water that combines information and communication technology with water technology, can be harnessed to better contribute to water management in the country. Finally, it identifies some of the limitations of prevalent water allocation regimes which need to be addressed to make the best use of available water resources.
Since 1965, the Korean Government has invested heavily in quantitative development strategies to meet water needs, and despite highly variable water availability, this has allowed for and facilitated rapid urbanisation and economic growth. However, several long-term trends are expected to affect the capacity of the current water management system to adequately respond to current and future water risks, such as rapid ageing of the population, fiscal consolidation and climate change. These call for a renewed emphasis on water use efficiency.
Public procurement is becoming a strategic tool in Peru for achieving key policy objectives. The legislative reforms enacted in 2016 indicate a strong commitment from the government to modernise the public procurement system. In fact, the system is currently going through a transitional period, moving from excessive formalities and complex tendering processes to prioritizing results and value for money. This report examines ongoing public procurement reforms in Peru, focusing on issues such as procurement processes, participation in tenders, and the culture of integrity in the public procurement process. It provides guidance to help Peru implement reforms that enhance the efficiency, transparency and accountability of the system.
The Eurostat-OECD compilation guide on inventories represents the first comprehensive overview of conceptual and practical issues related to the compilation of the balance-sheet item ‘inventories’ in the national accounts.
The estimation of inventories and changes in inventories in national accounts is often very difficult. Therefore it is the aim of this compilation guide to provide conceptual and practical guidance to statisticians on the estimation and valuation of inventories in mutual coherence with the transaction changes in inventories, and by doing so, to increase international comparability for these items. The guide clarifies theoretical concepts and possible data sources. It elaborates several estimation methods for both the asset inventories and the transaction changes in inventories, including their breakdowns into products, industries and institutional sectors. The compilation guide also addresses several special estimation cases and provides the results of a questionnaire — completed by 34 countries — on country practices regarding the estimation of inventories.
The Eurostat-OECD compilation guide on inventories was prepared by the Task Force on Land and other non-financial assets under the joint leadership of Eurostat and the OECD. Representatives from various European Union (EU) and non-EU OECD countries were represented as well as the European Central Bank.
This report examines how the two global mega-trends of population ageing and rising inequalities have been developing and interacting, both within and across generations. Taking a life-course perspective the report shows how inequalities in education, health, employment and earnings compound, resulting in large differences in lifetime earnings across different groups. It suggests a policy agenda to prevent, mitigate and cope with inequalities along the life course drawing on good practices in OECD countries and emerging economies.
This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the challenges confronting Chile’s centralised growth model and recommendations towards developing a more integrated territorial approach, capable of mobilising regional productivity catch-up potential in order to strengthen the role of regions and municipalities.
The Chilean government has launched an ambitious decentralisation agenda, aimed at empowering municipalities by providing them with the legitimacy, financial resources, human capacities and tools required to improve their autonomy and performance. This study seeks to assist the government by covering several dimensions, looking at municipal responsibilities, fiscal and human resources, equalisation mechanisms, local public service performance, citizen participation, and co-ordination mechanisms across levels of government.
Cette source fiable et à jour de statistiques trimestrielles de l'OCDE sur la balance des paiements et le commerce international de marchandises dresse un tableau précis des tendances les plus récentes des structures d’échange des pays membres avec le reste du monde. Les données de balance des paiements sont présentées corrigées des variations saisonnières. Les statistiques de commerce international de marchandises sont ventilées par pays. Les séries présentées couvrent les dix derniers trimestres et les deux dernières années. Cette publication trimestrielle est divisé en trois parties: I. Balance des paiements et commerce international, II. Commerce international de marchandises par pays et III. Échanges en Valeur Ajoutée (ÉVA) (données annuelles).
State-owned enterprises (SOEs) are important elements of many national economies. They are also increasingly active internationally, which has led to renewed concerns in recent years about whether their competitive conditions in home markets might adversely impact “fair” competition with companies abroad. Many of the concerns held by national policy makers and businesses surrounding foreign SOEs’ competitive conditions stem from limited transparency and information on SOEs. This report seeks to bolster the factual information base by presenting the main findings of the most comprehensive and internationally comparable dataset currently available on the size, sectoral distribution and corporate forms of national SOE sectors in 40 countries.