Publications


  • 27-April-2018

    English

    Germany: Towards Stronger, Fairer and Greener Growth

    Overall, the German economy is performing very well. Still, many citizens feel they do not sufficiently benefit from Germany’s good economic performance, as evidenced by the outcomes of the recent election. They perceive that their well-being is compromised by technological change, foreign competition and the arrival of migrants. Germany’s new government will have to tackle these issues by making growth not only stronger, but also fairer and greener. This report identifies key policy reforms to help the country achieve this goal, to foster productivity gains, boost public investment and ensuring that everybody can benefit from Germany’s strong economy and that no one is left behind. The German government needs the right labour, education and tax policies to foster access to quality jobs for everyone, including women, youth, the elderly and immigrants, while meeting the country’s climate objectives. The OECD is proud of its long-standing policy dialogue with Germany and looks forward to supporting the new government. Together, let us design, promote and implement better policies for better lives in Germany and worldwide.
  • 26-avril-2018

    Français

    Les impôts sur les salaires 2018

    Cette publication phare annuelle contient des informations détaillées sur les impôts payés sur les salaires dans les pays de l’OCDE. Elle couvre les impôts sur le revenu et les cotisations de sécurité sociale payés par les salariés, les cotisations de sécurité sociale et taxes sur les salaires versées par leurs employeurs, et les transferts en espèces perçus par les ménages qui exercent un emploi. L’objectif est de montrer comment ces taxes et prestations sont calculées dans chaque pays membre et d’examiner leurs impacts sur le revenu des ménages. Les résultats permettent aussi de faire des comparaisons internationales quantitatives des coûts de main-d’œuvre et de la situation globale vis-à-vis de l’impôt et des prestations des célibataires et des familles à différents niveaux de revenus. Cette publication présente des taux effectifs moyens et marginaux d’imposition sur les coûts de main-d’œuvre pour huit types de ménages représentatifs dont le niveau du salaire et la composition diffèrent (célibataires, parents isolés, couples avec un ou deux salaires et avec ou sans enfant). Les taux moyens d’imposition mettent en évidence le pourcentage de la rémunération brute ou des coûts de main d’oeuvre représenté par les impôts et les prélèvements sociaux, avant et après transferts en espèces, et les taux marginaux d’imposition correspondent à la partie d’une augmentation minime de la rémunération brute ou des coûts de main d’œuvre reversée sous la forme d’impôts.L’édition 2018 des Impôts sur les salaires inclut une étude spéciale intitulée « Différences dans les revenus disponisbles des foyers avec ou sans enfants ».Note : La partie III, Informations détaillées par pays, n’est disponible que dans la version anglaise de cette publication.
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  • 26-April-2018

    English

    Getting Skills Right: Spain

    This report identifies effective strategies to tackle skills imbalances in Spain. It provides an assessment of practices and policies in the following areas: the collection and use of information on skill needs to foster a better alignment between skills acquisition and labour market needs; education and training policies targeting skills development and investment for individuals and employers; activation policies to develop skills through on-the-job learning; and policies facilitating the entry of migrants with skills that are in demand. The assessment is based on country visits, desk research and data analysis conducted by the OECD secretariat.
  • 26-April-2018

    English

    Productivity and Jobs in a Globalised World - (How) Can All Regions Benefit?

    This report looks at how regional policies can support productivity growth and jobs. While there has been a remarkable decline in inequality in OECD countries, inequality among regions within certain countries has increased over the same time period. Regions that narrowed productivity gaps tended to benefit from economically vibrant tradable sectors and integration with well-functioning cities. This report considers in detail the role of the tradable sector as a driver of productivity growth and its relationship with employment. It addresses the possible risks of a growing tradable sector and how diversification is central to strengthening regional economic resilience. It considers how regions integrate global value chains and highlights the role of regional and policy links in fostering productivity growth and job creation. It asks what policies can help better anticipate or cushion shocks from trade in specific regions and, more generally, what strategies and framework conditions are conducive for regional productivity and employment growth.
  • 25-April-2018

    English

    Making Development Co-operation Work for Small Island Developing States

    Small Island Developing States (SIDS) stand at a critical juncture on their paths to sustainable development. Economic growth, human development and vulnerability indicators point to specific challenges facing SIDS, and suggest that new development solutions and approaches are needed to chart the course to prosperity for their people and their environments. Building on a number of innovative sources of data, such as the OECD Surveys on Private Finance Mobilised and on Philanthropy, in addition to OECD DAC statistics and other sources, this report examines the financing for development resources – domestic and external – available to SIDS. It provides new evidence on sources, destination, and objectives of development finance in SIDS. It highlights innovative approaches and good practices that the international community could replicate, further develop, and scale up in order to make development co-operation work for SIDS, helping them set on a path of sustainable development.
  • 24-April-2018

    English

    Competitiveness in South East Europe - A Policy Outlook 2018

    Future economic development and the well-being of citizens in South East Europe (SEE) increasingly depend on greater economic competitiveness. Realising the region’s economic potential requires a holistic, growth-oriented policy approach. Against the backdrop of enhanced European Union (EU) accession prospects and a drive towards deeper regional co-operation, SEE governments have demonstrated a renewed commitment to enacting policy reforms.
     
    The second edition of Competitiveness in South East Europe: A Policy Outlook seeks to help SEE policy makers assess progress made towards their growth goals and benchmark them against regional peers and OECD good practices. The 17 policy dimensions addressed in this report encompass a wide range of areas key to economic competitiveness including the business environment, skills and capacity, the region's economic structure and its governance. The report leveraged a highly participatory assessment process which brought together more than 1 500 individual stakeholders including OECD experts, SEE policy makers, private sector representatives and regional policy networks and organisations to create a balanced view of performance.Since the latest edition of the report, there have been areas of noteworthy progress. The six assessed SEE economies have adopted strategies to improve the overall standard of education, acted to remove technical barriers to trade and taken steps to establish better financing mechanisms for small and medium-sized enterprises. Further efforts are underway to expand broadband services and close the digital divide, tackle inefficiencies in the energy and agriculture sectors, and address demographic challenges posed by long-term unemployment. Notwithstanding these important gains, there remain considerable challenges for these economies as they continue their journey towards structural reform.
  • 19-April-2018

    English

    Education for a Bright Future in Greece

    After a decade of severe fiscal crisis also impacting education, Greece is looking ahead. Now is the time to invest effectively in education and define a forward-looking path for Greece. Building on the current reform agenda, this report offers an analysis of the context and underlying policy issues that once addressed, can contribute to raising the quality and equity of education in Greece.Drawing on evidence and international experience, the review highlights policy options that can guide and enhance current reform efforts in Greece in four areas: effective governance; policies for school improvement; efficiency, equity and quality of the education system; tertiary education. How can the governance and financing of Greek education be streamlined and improved? How can Greece achieve greater equity in educational provision and student outcomes? How can the Greek - qualified and well engaged - teaching force help promote school improvement? Last but not least, how can higher education help Greece restore prosperity?This report takes a hard look at the above issues, and many others. It will offer precious insights to policy makers and the education community.
  • 19-avril-2018

    Français

    Guide OCDE sur le devoir de diligence applicable aux chaînes d'approvisionnement responsables dans le secteur de l'habillement et de la chaussure

    Le Guide OCDE sur le devoir de diligence applicable aux chaînes d’approvisionnement responsables dans le secteur de l’habillement et de la chaussure a pour but d’aider les entreprises de ce même secteur à mettre en œuvre les recommandations des Principes directeurs de l’OCDE à l’intention des entreprises multinationales portant sur l’application du devoir de diligence tout au long de la chaîne d’approvisionnement. Ce guide a également pour but d’éviter les incidences négatives liées aux activités et aux modes d’approvisionnements de ces entreprises, et propose de traiter ces incidences négatives. Ce guide s’inscrit dans la continuité des Principes directeurs de l’OCDE, l’objectif étant de garantir que les entreprises du secteur de l’habillement et de la chaussure exercent leurs activités dans le respect des politiques publiques nationales, et que, la confiance mutuelle entre les entreprises et les sociétés au sein desquelles elles opèrent, soit renforcée. Ce Guide servira également d’appui aux entreprises pour mettre en œuvre les recommandations relatives au devoir de diligence figurant dans les Principes Directeurs des Nations Unies relatifs aux entreprises et aux droits de l’homme. Le contenu de ce Guide est par ailleurs conforme à celui de la Déclaration de l'Organisation Internationale du Travail (OIT) relative aux principes et aux droits fondamentaux au travail, à celui des Conventions et Recommandations de l’OIT, et à celui de la Déclaration de principes tripartite de l'OIT sur les entreprises multinationales et la politique sociale. Avec ses modules sur l’exercice du devoir de diligence dans certaines zones à risques spécifiques, ce Guide se veut exhaustif pour permettre aux entreprises du secteur de l’habillement et de la chaussure d’exercer leurs activités et de s’approvisionner de manière responsable.
     
    Ce Guide est le fruit d’un processus multipartite impliquant des pays membres et non-membres de l’OCDE, ainsi que des représentants d’entreprises, de syndicats et de la société civile. Il a été supervisé par le Groupe de travail sur la conduite responsable des entreprises. Ce Guide s’appuie sur les rapports détaillés que les Points de contact nationaux pour les Principes directeurs de l’OCDE (PCN) en France et en Italie ont rédigés au sujet de l’application des Principes directeurs de l’OCDE dans le secteur de l’habillement et de la chaussure. Il fait suite aux déclarations des PCN de juin 2013 et de juin 2014 après l’effondrement tragique du Rana Plaza.
  • 19-April-2018

    English

    Meeting Policy Challenges for a Sustainable Bioeconomy

    This publication investigates key aspects surrounding the sustainability of bioeconomy development: the use of biomass as feedstock for future production;  the design and building of biorefineries for the manufacture of a range of fuels, chemicals and materials, and also for electricity generation; and the use of biotechnologies such as synthetic biology, metabolic engineering and gene editing.Today more than 50 countries have a dedicated bioeconomy strategy or related policies. While the bioeconomy is consistent with sustainability policy (examples are the circular economy, the UN Sustainable Development Goals, green growth, re-industrialisation, rural regeneration, climate change mitigation), synergies must be ensured to avoid over-exploitation of natural resources and conflicting global needs.
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