Over the past 15 years, Colombia’s education system has undergone an extraordinary transformation.
Over the past two decades the Colombian education system has undergone a fundamental transformation. A new OECD report, Education in Colombia, analyses the progress made and the challenges ahead to improve quality and equity in order for the country to reach its goal of being the “most educated” country in Latin America by 2025.
Public procurement is a critical element of good governance, as it is a crucial nexus of interaction between the public and private sectors. This report examines ongoing public procurement reforms in Colombia, focusing on issues such as the availability of data on public procurement, preventing conflicts of interest, competition and contracting award methods, and legal control and remedy systems.
This innovative book combines results from research conducted in Colombia about how communications services consumers make consumption choices with OECD expertise in regulatory policy, behavioural economics, and data analytics, in order to help improve the consumer protection regime in Colombia. It focuses on the types of incentives that should be provided to change both provider and user behaviour, and considers where appropriate regulatory interventions may be needed to ensure that these incentives are realised. This work supports the Communications Regulator of Colombia in redesigning its consumer protection regime. This effort has refocused the regulatory framework from “protecting rights” towards making the market function best; this involves encouraging the providers to improve the quality of their services and rates offered in the market and to foster a better understanding of what is being offered and how. The book also makes specific recommendations on possible follow-up experiments to test some of the possible solutions to help communications services consumers better understand the information provided by service operators.
Colombia has made major economic and social advances in recent years. The combination of strong economic growth and policies targeted at the most vulnerable groups improved considerably the living standards of the Colombian population. Today, the country enjoys higher employment and labour force participation rates than the average of OECD countries and unemployment is steadily declining. Nevertheless, despite these positive trends, deep structural problems remain. Labour informality is widespread, the rate of self-employment is high and many employees have non-regular contracts. Income inequality is higher than in any OECD country and redistribution through taxes and benefits is almost negligible. In addition, half a century of internal conflict and violence has displaced a significant part of the population, and many of them are living in extreme poverty. Despite considerable progress, violence continues to be a challenge and also affects trade union members and leaders. The Colombian Government has undertaken important reforms in recent years to address these labour market and social challenges, and the efforts are gradually paying off. However, further progress is needed to enhance the quality of jobs and well-being for all. The main trust of this report is to support the Colombian Government in tackling labour market duality, generate trust between the social partners, develop inclusive and active social policies, and get the most out of international migration.
La Colombie a considérablement amélioré son système de santé ces 20 dernières années avec, à la clé, un allongement de l’espérance de vie et une baisse de la mortalité infantile. Cette dernière a diminué, passant de 40 décès pour 1 000 naissances vivantes en 1970 à 12.8 ces dernières années et l’espérance de vie à la naissance a atteint 75.2 ans sur la même période.
Colombia’s record in extending health insurance and health services to its population is impressive. In 1990, around 1 in 6 of the population had health insurance. Now, nearly 97% do, with greatest expansion occurring amongst poorer households. Likewise, in 1993 out-of-pocket spending made up 52% of total national expenditure on health. By 2006, this had fallen to less than 15%. Although Colombia has high rates of income inequality (with a Gini coefficient of 53.5 in 2012, compared to the OECD average of 32.2), access to health care services is much more equal. In urban populations, for example, 1.8% of children aged less than two years of age are recorded as having received no routine vaccinations, compared to 1.0% of rural children. Colombia nevertheless faces important challenges to maintain and improve the performance of its health system. This report looks at Colombia’s health care system in detail and offers recommendations on what Colombia can do to ensure accessibility, quality, efficiency and sustainability.
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Despite rapidly expanding access to ICT among households, in 2012 some 37% of 15-year-old students in Colombia still had no access to a computer at home (in 2009, this proportion was 52%).
This study examines the Peruvian and Colombian experiences as regards some aspects of the management of their extractive industries.
President Santos’ leadership and vision have been instrumental in guiding Colombia through a series of ambitious reforms to improve governance, make the public sector more effective, modernise the economy, and make growth more sustainable and inclusive.