This report contains the 2017 Peer Review Report on the Exchange of Information on Request of Norway.
As one of the world’s largest energy exporters, Norway advances the energy security of consuming countries. And at the same time, as a global advocate for climate change mitigation, Norway is committed to environmental sustainability and climate policy.
The latest review of Norway’s energy policies by the International Energy Agency finds that the country continues to manage its significant hydrocarbon resources and revenues in a sustainable way, and remains a reliable supplier of oil and gas. But as the world looks to cut its reliance on fossil fuels, Norway’s government should also consider measures to prepare for a future with lower oil and gas revenues.
Norway’s large hydropower generation is another valuable energy asset particularly at a time when European electricity markets are integrating and variable renewable energy generation is growing. More cross-border connections are coming online and will help realise the full potential of hydropower for balancing variations in demand and supply in the regional market. This will also improve electricity security in Norway in times of low hydropower availability. This review looks at how market-based investments in low-carbon generating capacity can be encouraged by changes in taxation and subsidy systems.
In order to meet its ambitious targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this review finds that Norway needs to step up efforts at home. The IEA encourages the government to spell out more in detail how the emissions reduction targets will be met. There is a major potential to do so in transportation, oil and gas production and manufacturing. In this context, a high level of public spending on energy RD&D and strong efforts to develop carbon capture and storage are very welcome.
Following a remarkable transformation in the past century in research and innovation, in particular through the development of new technologies and processes in sectors such as oil and gas, shipbuilding and also fisheries and aquaculture, Norway is today increasingly facing a “triple transition imperative” in which it needs, first, to shift toward a more diversified and robust economy; second, to move to a more competitive, effective and efficient innovation system; and third, to support research and innovation activities that can confront an array of societal challenges (climate change, food security, aging, health and so on). The Long-Term Plan for Research and Higher Education 2015-2024 (LTP) launched by the Norwegian government has set the base to enhance the capacity of the research and higher education system to cope with these transition challenges. This report proposes recommendations to take advantage of the revision of this comprehensive strategic plan in 2018 to improve the horizontal coordination and add more concrete structural policy initiatives, without changing the plan’s general orientation nor giving up the sectorial and the consensus principles that form the basis of Norwegian policy making.
English, PDF, 265kb
The unemployment rate increased more slowly in Norway than in most OECD countries in the years following the economic crisis. Norway maintained its unemployment level well below the OECD average, but in late 2014 it started to rise.
The tax burden on labour income is expressed by the tax wedge, which is a measure of the net tax burden on labour income borne by the employee and the employer.
English, PDF, 418kb
Norway had the 21st highest tax wedge among the 35 OECD member countries in 2016. The country had the 20th highest position in 2015. The average single worker in Norway faced a tax wedge of 36.2% in 2016 compared with the OECD average of 36.0%.
These country specific notes provide figures and commentary from the Taxation and Skills publication that examines how tax policy can encourage skills development in OECD countries.
The northern sparsely populated areas (NSPA) of Finland, Norway and Sweden are becoming increasingly important to the geopolitical and economic interests of these countries and the European Union. These regions have unique geographical characteristics - low population density and a harsh climate - and face specific challenges due to an ageing population, long distances from markets, and high-cost land transport. However, high productivity growth is possible in low-density regions. This report sets out policy recommendations at cross-border, national and regional scales to enhance prosperity and well-being across the NSPA. This includes closer co-operation with national governments to address shared challenges and opportunities such as improving east-west transport connections and reducing occupational and skills barriers to labour mobility, and addressing barriers to business growth such as access to finance.
As part of the STI Outlook 2016, the OECD has released policy profiles by country. These include cross-country analyses that draw on the first joint EC-OECD survey on STI policies. They focus on major STI policy areas, instruments and trends.
This publication provides detailed country notes on Value Added Tax/Goods and Services Tax (VAT/GST) and excise duty rates in OECD member countries.