Austria has low levels of labour migration from non-EU/EFTA countries. At the same time, intra-EU free mobility has grown significantly and since 2011, overall migration for employment is above the OECD average. It recently reformed its labour migration system, making it more ready to accept labour migrants where they are needed, especially in medium-skilled occupations in which there were limited admission possibilities previously. This publication analyses the reform and the Austrian labour migration management system in international comparison.
En 2012, 336 100 étrangers sont arrivés en Espagne, ce qui marque un recul important par rapport à l’année précédente (416 300 personnes).
Les flux migratoires en Slovénie ont récemment augmenté.
L’immigration vers la République slovaque a régressé sous l’effet de la crise économique (le nombre d’immigrés étrangers a diminué de moitié entre 2008 et 2011), tandis que l’émigration est restée stable ou a légèrement augmenté.
Norway is characterised by very high levels of migration from within the European Economic Area (EEA) and growing but small scale labour migration from countries outside the EEA. In this context, the challenge for managing discretionary labour migration is to ensure it complements EEA flows. High-skilled workers who come to Norway often leave, even if their employer would like to keep them. Norway has many international students, but most appear to leave at graduation or in the years that follow. The spouses of skilled migrants – usually educated and talented themselves – face challenges in finding employment, and this may cause the whole family to leave. Key industries in smaller population centres wonder how they will source talent in the future. This review examines these aspects of the Norwegian labour migration system. It considers the efficiency of procedures and whether the system is capable of meeting demand. It looks at several policy measures that were implemented and withdrawn, and assesses how these and other mechanisms could be better applied. The characteristics and behaviour of past labour migrants is examined to suggest means of encouraging promising immigrants to remain, and how Norway might attract the specific labour migrants from which it can most benefit in the future.
La Commission européenne et l’OCDE ont mené conjointement pendant trois ans le projet de recherche « Gérer les migrations économiques pour mieux répondre aux besoins du marché du travail ». Ses conclusions sont présentées dans ce rapport.
La Nouvelle-Zélande fait partie des pays de l’OCDE qui reçoivent un nombre élevé de migrants de travail qui sont susceptibles de s’installer. Le rapport constate que le régime de migration de travail néo-zélandais fonctionne bien et que plusieurs caractéristiques du système d’immigration néo-zélandais sont en passe de devenir des exemples de systèmes de sélection pour les autres pays de l’OCDE.
Until the mid-1990s, the share of migrants in Italy was relatively low in international comparison. With a persistent demand for foreign workers in low-skilled and low-paid jobs, the proximity of conflict areas and the enlargement of the European Union to Romania and Bulgaria in 2007, migration to Italy increased rapidly over the last 15 years. This report presents an overview of the skills and qualifications of immigrants in Italy, their key labour market outcomes in international comparison, and their evolution over time, given the highly segmented Italian labour market and its high share of informal jobs.
It analyses the framework for integration and the main integration policy instruments. Special attention is paid to funding issues and to the distribution of competences between national and sub-national actors. Finally, this report reviews the integration at school and the school-to-work transition of the children of immigrants
This report presents an overview of the skills and qualifications of immigrants in Italy, their key labour market outcomes in international comparison, and their evolution over time, given the highly segmented Italian labour market and its high share of informal jobs.
Anglais, PDF, 475kb
This edition of Migration Policy Debates looks at the evidence for how immigrants affect the economy in three main areas: The labour market, the public purse and economic growth.