Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development in Cambodia is the result of a project carried out by the Cambodia Development Resource Institute (CDRI) and the OECD Development Centre, in collaboration with the Ministry of Interior and with support from the European Union. The project aimed to provide policy makers with evidence on the way migration influences specific sectors – the labour market, agriculture, education and investment and financial services – and, in turn, how sectoral policies affect migration. The report addresses three dimensions of the migration cycle that have become an important part of the country's social and economic contexts: emigration, remittances and return.
The results of the empirical work confirm that even though migration contributes to the development of Cambodia, the potential of migration is not fully exploited. One explanation is that migration only appears to a very limited extent in the National Strategic Development Plan. Many policy makers in Cambodia do not sufficiently take migration into account in their respective policy areas. Cambodia therefore needs to adopt a more coherent policy agenda to do more to integrate migration into its National Strategic Development Plan, improve co-ordination mechanisms and strengthen international co-operation. This would enhance the contribution of migration to development in the country.
Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development in Georgia is the result of a project carried out by the Caucasus Research Resource Center (CRRC-Georgia) and the OECD Development Centre, in collaboration with the State Commission on Migration Issues (SCMI) and with support from the European Union. The project aimed to provide policy makers with evidence on the way migration influences specific sectors – the labour market, agriculture, education and investment and financial services – and, in turn, how sectoral policies affect migration. The report addresses three dimensions of the migration cycle that have changed remarkably in Georgia over the last 20 years: emigration, remittances and return.
The results of the empirical work confirm that even though migration contributes to the development of Georgia, the potential of migration is not fully exploited. One explanation is that, despite headway in the field of migration and development through the creation of the SCMI, not all policy makers in Georgia take migration sufficiently into account in their respective policy areas. Georgian authorities therefore need to adopt a more coherent policy agenda and better integrate migration into their sectoral strategies to enhance the contribution of migration to development in the country.
In many ways, primary care in Denmark performs well. Danish primary care is trusted and valued by patients, and is relatively inexpensive. But there are important areas where it needs to be strengthened. Most critically, Danish primary care is relatively opaque in terms of the performance data available at local level. Greater transparency is vital in the next phase of reform and sector strengthening. Robust information on quality and outcomes empowers patients and gives them choice. It can support GPs to benchmark themselves, and engage in continuous quality improvement. It also allows the authorities to better understand where they should direct additional resources. This report draws on evidence and best practice from across OECD health systems to support Denmark in: agreeing on the steps that will strengthen its primary care sector, delivering high-quality, patient-centred care, and establishing a sustainable footing as the foundation for a high-performing health system.
Près de 3 millions de personnes qui sont nées au Maroc vivaient dans un pays de l’OCDE en 2010/11. Pour évaluer le potentiel que ce groupe représente pour l’économie marocaine, cette revue établit la répartition des émigrés marocains sur les pays de l’OCDE, ainsi que leur âge, leur sexe et leur niveau d’éducation. Les résultats sur le marché du travail des émigrés marocains sont analysés, de même que sont documentées les caractéristiques des émigrés marocains qui retournent vivre au Maroc. La plus grande diaspora marocaine réside en France, suivie par l’Espagne et l’Italie, où leur nombre a fortement augmenté avant que les flux migratoires ne soient affectés par la crise économique. Les émigrés marocains ont un faible niveau d’éducation, et connaissent une intégration sur le marché du travail moins favorable que les natifs dans les pays de destination, et une grande partie travaille dans des professions peu qualifiées. Ceux qui sont retournés vivre au Maroc sont souvent retraités, mais sont aussi particulièrement susceptibles de devenir entrepreneurs.
The Dutch labour migration system has undergone substantive changes in recent years. To induce a transition to more high-skilled migration, a programme based on salary thresholds has grown in volume while a programme based on work permits after a labour market test has shrunk. New programmes target international graduates either of Dutch educational institutions or of selected institutions abroad. Changes to immigration procedures have shifted responsibility to migrants' employers and have greatly reduced processing times. This review first examines the composition of labour migration to the Netherlands, in the context of present and expected demand in the Dutch labour market. Following a discussion of various programmes and procedures, the review assesses how labour migration contributes to the strategic development of sectors and to employment in regions. It then explores the determinants for the retention of high-skilled migrants and for the integration of international graduates into the Dutch labour market.
Sweden has a remarkable track record in sustaining a high level of well-being of its citizens. The country performs above the OECD average in all dimensions of the OECD’s Better Life Index, and these good outcomes are typically shared widely across the population. Sweden is one of the leading countries in receiving refugees and a strong supporter of ambitious global goals to fight climate change and implement the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. However, for this success story to continue, the country needs to reverse the declining educational performance of its youth, speed up labour market integration of newly arrived immigrants and address infrastructure deficiencies, particularly in the housing sector. Also, Sweden’s high ambitions with respect to environmental protection call for further policy action to advance the transition to a low carbon and circular economy.
La série de l’OCDE Les clés de l’intégration résume les principaux enseignements des travaux de l’OCDE sur les politiques d’intégration, et notamment de la série d’études par pays : Les migrants et l’emploi. Elle vise à synthétiser les principaux défis et les bonnes pratiques en matière d’intégration durable des immigrés et de leurs enfants en ciblant quelques domaines clés d’intégration et quelques groupes cibles. Chaque brochure contient dix enseignements et des exemples de bonnes pratiques en la matière complétés par des comparaisons synthétiques des politiques d’intégration des pays membres de l’OCDE. Cette première brochure dresse l’inventaire des expériences des pays de l’OCDE en matière d’intégration des réfugiés et des autres groupes nécessitant une protection, désignés comme migrants humanitaires.
The OECD series Recruiting Immigrant Workers comprises country studies of labour migration policies. Each volume analyses whether migration policy is being used effectively and efficiently to help meet labour needs, without adverse effects on labour markets. It focuses mainly on regulated labour migration movements over which policy has immediate and direct oversight. This particular volume looks at the efficiency of European Union instruments for managing labour migration.
This review is the first in a new series on the skills and labour market integration of immigrants and their children. With 16% of its population born abroad, Sweden has one of the larger immigrant populations among the European OECD countries. Estimates suggest that about half of the foreign-born population originally came to Sweden as refugees or as the family of refugees and Sweden has been the OECD country that has had by far the largest inflows of asylum seekers relative to its population. In all OECD countries, humanitarian migrants and their families face greater challenges to integrate into the labour market than other groups. It is thus not surprising that immigrant versus native-born differences are larger than elsewhere, which also must be seen in the context of high skills and labour market participation among the native-born. For both genders, employment disparities are particularly pronounced among the low-educated, among whom immigrants are heavily overrepresented. These immigrants face particular challenges related to the paucity of low-skilled jobs in Sweden, and policy needs to acknowledge that their integration pathway tends to be a long one. Against this backdrop, Sweden has highly developed and longstanding integration policies that mainly aim at upskilling immigrants while temporarily lowering the cost of hiring, while other tools that work more strongly with the social partners and the civil society are less well developed and need strengthening.