More than three million individuals who were born in Germany lived in another OECD country in 2010/11. To assess the potential that this group represents for the German labour market, this review establishes the distribution of German emigrants over OECD countries, as well as their age, sex, and educational attainment. Shifts in the German diaspora towards European destination countries and higher educational attainment are documented. The largest German diaspora still resides in the United States, but the diaspora in Switzerland and Spain has grown particularly quickly. International students from Germany have even come to represent the largest group of international students from any OECD country. While German emigrants experience less favourable labour market outcomes than their peers in Germany, the emigrants work disproportionately often in high-skill occupations. Survey evidence suggests that many Germans in Germany consider emigration and that many German emigrants are open to return. Those who have returned in recent years, however, appear to have a lower educational attainment than those leaving.
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Much thought has gone into the design of migrant integration policy in recent years, but migrants’ labour market outcomes continue to lag behind those of other Swedes, notably because of low educational attainment and literacy proficiency.
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This report summarizes major policy and practical issues discussed by international and Asian experts at the 4th Roundtable on Labour Migration (ADBI/OECD/ILO, Tokyo, 27-28 January 2014). The report outlines the trends in labor migration within Asia and between Asia and some OECD countries. It reviews the links between migration and human capital development and presents the impact of migration on family members "left behind".
Austria has low levels of labour migration from non-EU/EFTA countries. At the same time, intra-EU free mobility has grown significantly and since 2011, overall migration for employment is above the OECD average. It recently reformed its labour migration system, making it more ready to accept labour migrants where they are needed, especially in medium-skilled occupations in which there were limited admission possibilities previously. This publication analyses the reform and the Austrian labour migration management system in international comparison.
En 2012, 336 100 étrangers sont arrivés en Espagne, ce qui marque un recul important par rapport à l’année précédente (416 300 personnes).
Les flux migratoires en Slovénie ont récemment augmenté.
L’immigration vers la République slovaque a régressé sous l’effet de la crise économique (le nombre d’immigrés étrangers a diminué de moitié entre 2008 et 2011), tandis que l’émigration est restée stable ou a légèrement augmenté.
Norway is characterised by very high levels of migration from within the European Economic Area (EEA) and growing but small scale labour migration from countries outside the EEA. In this context, the challenge for managing discretionary labour migration is to ensure it complements EEA flows. High-skilled workers who come to Norway often leave, even if their employer would like to keep them. Norway has many international students, but most appear to leave at graduation or in the years that follow. The spouses of skilled migrants – usually educated and talented themselves – face challenges in finding employment, and this may cause the whole family to leave. Key industries in smaller population centres wonder how they will source talent in the future. This review examines these aspects of the Norwegian labour migration system. It considers the efficiency of procedures and whether the system is capable of meeting demand. It looks at several policy measures that were implemented and withdrawn, and assesses how these and other mechanisms could be better applied. The characteristics and behaviour of past labour migrants is examined to suggest means of encouraging promising immigrants to remain, and how Norway might attract the specific labour migrants from which it can most benefit in the future.
La Commission européenne et l’OCDE ont mené conjointement pendant trois ans le projet de recherche « Gérer les migrations économiques pour mieux répondre aux besoins du marché du travail ». Ses conclusions sont présentées dans ce rapport.
La Nouvelle-Zélande fait partie des pays de l’OCDE qui reçoivent un nombre élevé de migrants de travail qui sont susceptibles de s’installer. Le rapport constate que le régime de migration de travail néo-zélandais fonctionne bien et que plusieurs caractéristiques du système d’immigration néo-zélandais sont en passe de devenir des exemples de systèmes de sélection pour les autres pays de l’OCDE.