International investment spurs prosperity and economic development in home and recipient countries. Policy coordination helps governments resist protectionist pressures and develop effective policies. The OECD's Freedom of Investment process brings together some 56 governments from around the world to exchange information and experiences on investment policies at regular roundtables.
Understanding Financial Accounts seeks to show how a range of questions on financial developments can be answered with the framework of financial accounts and balance sheets, by providing non-technical explanations illustrated with practical examples: What are the basic principles, concepts and definitions used for this framework which is part of the system of national accounts? What sources and which methodologies are used for their compilation? How are these used to monitor and analyse economic and financial developments? What can we learn about the 2007-2009 economic and financial crisis when looking at the numbers provided in this framework? What can we learn about financial risks and vulnerabilities? This publication is intended for young statisticians, students, journalists, economists, policy makers and citizens, who want to know more about the statistics that are at the heart of the analysis of financial developments in OECD economies.
In 2017, the Royal Government of Cambodia published a new Social Protection Policy Framework (SPPF), providing an ambitious vision for a social protection system in which a comprehensive set of policies and institutions operate in sync with each other to sustainably reduce poverty and vulnerability.The Social Protection System Review of Cambodia prompts and answers a series of questions that are crucial for the implementation ofthe framework : How will emerging trends affect the needs for social protection, now and into the future? To what extent are Cambodia’s social protection instruments able – or likely – to address current and future livelihood challenges? How does fiscal policy affect social protection objectives?
This review provides a contribution to the ongoing policy dialogue on social protection, sustainable growth and poverty reduction. It includes four chapters. Chapter 1 is a forward-looking assessment of Cambodia’s social protection needs. Chapter 2 maps the social protection sector and examines its adequacy. An investigation of the distributive impact of social protection and tax policy is undertaken in Chapter 3. The last chapter concludes with recommendations for policy strategies that could support the establishment of an inclusive social protection system in Cambodia, as envisaged by the SPPF.
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Global FDI flows decreased by 3% to USD 788 billion in the first half of 2017 compared to the second half of 2016. The overall decrease was due to an 11% drop in Q2 after increasing 3% in Q1.Inflows to the EU decreased by 46%, partly due to a drop in the United Kingdom from the very high levels recorded in the second half of 2016, while outflows decreased by a more modest 12%.
This report discusses the main results of a project on how to reduce air pollution from urban public transport in Kazakhstan, by providing an analysis for designing a green public investment programme in this sector. This sector represents an opportunity for Kazakhstan to address key objectives in its environmental and climate-related policies as part of the country’s ambitions to transition to a green economic path of development. The investment programme is also designed to support the modernisation of the urban transport fleet in the country and stimulate the domestic market to shift to modern buses powered by clean fuels. The programme is foreseen to be implemented in two phases: the first covers the cities of Kostanay and Shymkent and the second, all major urban centres in Kazakhstan. These investments are expected to result in significant air improvement.
Evidence on the role played by investment in global value chains (GVCs) can assist policy work on GVCs, trade, investment and development. Drawing on new and improved measures of trade and investment, these country notes provide relevant statistical information from OECD databases on trade, investment, the activities of multinational enterprises and global value chains.
For over 50 years, the Code has provided a balanced framework for countries to progressively remove unnecessary barriers to the movement of capital, while providing flexibility to cope with situations of economic and financial instability. In March 2016, adhering countries adopted terms of reference for a review of the Code with a view to strengthening it and ensuring its continued relevance.
This publication puts forward a research agenda advocating the importance of market competition, effective market regulation and competition policies for achieving inclusive growth and shared prosperity in emerging and developing economies. It is the result of a global partnership and shared commitment between the World Bank Group and the OECD.
Investment in clean energy infrastructure needs to be scaled up to support the broader development, economic and climate agenda. This will require leveraging private investment, however investment in this area remains constrained by barriers, including market and government failures. This page describes what tools the OECD provides to governments to create an enabling environment for investment flows to clean energy infrastructure.
L’investissement public et en particulier celui dans l’infrastructure, est important pour une croissance et un développement économique durables ainsi que pour la prestation des services publics. Cependant, il est vulnérable au risque de corruption et de capture. Ce rapport examine les bénéfices directs et indirects de l’investissement public si réalisé de manière éthique et efficace. Il fournit un Cadre d’intégrité pour l’investissement public, répertoriant les risques de corruption à chaque étape du cycle de l’investissement. Il identifie également les outils et mécanismes de promotion de l’intégrité dans le cycle de l’investissement et fournit des exemples de leur mise en place réussie à la fois dans les secteurs privé et public.