Publications & Documents


  • 5-November-2018

    English

    OECD Competition Assessment Reviews: Portugal - Volume II - Self-Regulated Professions

    Several of Portugal’s product markets remain among the most heavily regulated in the OECD, not least in the services sector. As vital inputs into the business sector, the liberal professions, such as legal services, architects and engineers, generate up to 1.8 times their value in outputs when they are used by firms. Having structural flaws such as access restrictions and reserved tasks, adversely affect the availability of such services for firms, there hence their ability to effectively compete in the markets. Regulatory restrictions also hamper innovation, efficiency and productivity within the liberal professions themselves. Against this backdrop, this report analyses Portuguese regulations for 13 self-regulated liberal professions (lawyers, solicitors, notaries, bailiffs, architects, engineers, technical engineers, certified accountants, auditors, economists, customs brokers, nutritionists and pharmacists). Using the OECD Competition Assessment Toolkit to structure the analysis, the project analysed 923 pieces of legislation. The report identifies 323 legal provisions which could be removed or amended to lift regulatory barriers to competition. The analysis of the Portuguese legislation and professions has been complemented by research into international experience and wide consultations with stakeholders from the public and private sectors. The OECD recommendations aim to remove or modify the identified provisions in order to be less restrictive in the access or exercise of the professions, to the benefit of businesses and consumers alike, while still achieving the policy objectives as stated by the Portuguese government. This report identifies the sources of those benefits and, where possible, provides quantitative estimates.
  • 5-November-2018

    English

    OECD Competition Assessment Reviews: Portugal - Volume I - Inland and Maritime Transports and Ports

    Several of Portugal’s product markets remain among the most heavily regulated in the OECD, not least in the services sector. The inland and maritime transports in Portugal are a vital part of the business environment, ensuring the movement of goods and passengers and allowing for inputs into the business sector to arrive when and where they are needed. Regulatory restrictions on entry, on the market structure, and on company formation adversely affect the ability of firms, whether providers or customers, to effectively compete in the markets. Regulatory restrictions also hamper innovation, efficiency and productivity. Against this backdrop, this report analyses Portuguese regulations for road, railway and maritime transport and many anxilary services (such as vehicle inspection centres), as well as Portugal’s ports. Using the OECD Competition Assessment Toolkit to structure the analysis, the project analysed 904 pieces of legislation. The report identifies 405 legal provisions which could be removed or amended to lift regulatory barriers to competition. The analysis of the Portuguese legislation has been complemented by research into international experience and wide consultations with stakeholders from the public and private sectors. The OECD recommendations aim to remove or modify the restrictive provisions in order to benefit businesses and consumers, while still achieving the policy of the Portuguese government. This report identifies the sources of those benefits and, where possible, provides quantitative estimates.
  • 31-October-2018

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Viet Nam 2018

    This review uses the OECD Policy Framework for Investment to present an assessment of the investment climate in Viet Nam and to discuss the challenges and opportunities faced by the government of Viet Nam in its reform efforts. It includes chapters on foreign investment trends and performance, the entry and operations of foreign investors, the legal framework for investment, corporate governance and competition policy, tax reforms, investment promotion and facilitation, infrastructure connectivity, investment framework for green growth and policies to promote and enable responsible business conduct.
  • 31-October-2018

    English

    Australian Services Trade in the Global Economy

    This book presents an in depth analysis of the contribution of services to the Australian economy, the regulatory environment of the services sector and its performance in an international context. The analysis highlights the importance of co-ordinated domestic policy action, priorities for promoting behind-the-border regulatory reforms in strategic international markets, and the benefits of an ambitious bilateral, plurilateral and multilateral trade policy agenda that contributes to rules-based certainty and predictability in services trade globally.
  • 18-October-2018

    English

    Energy Subsidy Reform in the Republic of Moldova - Energy Affordability, Fiscal and Environmental Impacts

    This report looks at the fiscal, environmental and social impacts of energy subsidy reform in Moldova with a particular focus on energy affordability. Reduced value added tax (VAT) rate on natural gas consumption and a VAT exemption on electricity and heat consumption by domestic users represent the largest fossil-fuel consumer subsidies in Moldova. Reforming these will imply an increase of the VAT rate, which will lead to an increase of gas, electricity and heat tariffs for households, and will in turn affect household consumption levels, related expenditures and energy affordability. If reform measures are to work, they will need to be accompanied by a carefully-designed social policy to protect poor households.
  • 16-octobre-2018

    Français

    Examens environnementaux de l'OCDE : Hongrie 2018 (Version abrégée)

    La Hongrie a notablement progressé dans le découplage des principales pressions environnementales par rapport à la croissance de la production, ce qui tient en grande partie à la mise en œuvre des directives de l’UE. Les émissions de gaz à effet de serre sont toutefois reparties à la hausse sous l’effet du récent rebond de l’activité économique. Il n’y a pas eu d’amélioration significative de la qualité de l’air, et des risques continuent de peser sur la qualité de l’eau. D’importantes difficultés institutionnelles font obstacle à une application plus efficace du droit et des politiques de l’environnement. La Hongrie pourrait accélérer la transition vers une économie plus verte et bas carbone, notamment en investissant dans l’efficacité énergétique du secteur résidentiel et dans la gestion rationnelle des déchets et des matières, ainsi qu’en assurant une prise en compte plus systématique de la protection de la biodiversité dans les politiques économiques sectorielles.Ceci est le troisième Examen environnemental de la Hongrie. Il évalue les avancées du pays en matière de développement durable et de croissance verte, et comporte des chapitres spéciaux consacrés aux déchets, à la gestion des matières et à l’économie circulaire, ainsi qu’à la biodiversité.Cette version abrégée contient le résumé, ainsi que l’évaluation et les recommandations officielles du rapport, issues des trois chapitres sur les tendances et développements récents, la gouvernance, la croissance verte, ainsi que des deux chapitres détaillés sur les déchets, la gestion des matières et l’économie circulaire, et sur la biodiversité. La version intégrale du rapport est disponible en anglais sur le site de l’OCDE.
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  • 16-octobre-2018

    Français

    Examens environnementaux de l'OCDE : République tchèque 2018 (Version abrégée)

    La République tchèque a progressé dans le découplage des prélèvements d’eau douce, de la consommation d’énergie et des émissions de GES et d’autres polluants atmosphériques par rapport à la croissance économique. En raison de son solide socle industriel et de sa dépendance au charbon, elle fait toutefois partie des pays à plus forte intensité d’énergie et de carbone de l’OCDE, et la pollution atmosphérique y suscite d’importantes préoccupations pour la santé publique. Pour progresser vers plus de développement durable, le pays devra renforcer son engagement politique en faveur d’une économie bas carbone et mettre en œuvre des politiques environnementales d’un meilleur rapport coût-efficacité.Ceci est le troisième Examen environnemental de la République tchèque. Il évalue les avancées du pays en matière de développement durable et de croissance verte, et comporte des chapitres spéciaux consacrés aux déchets, à la gestion des matières et à l’économie circulaire, ainsi qu’au développement urbain durable.Cette version abrégée contient le résumé, ainsi que l’évaluation et les recommandations officielles du rapport, issues des trois chapitres sur les tendances et développements récents, la gouvernance, la croissance verte, ainsi que des deux chapitres détaillés sur les déchets, la gestion des matières et l’économie circulaire, et sur le développement urbain durable . La version intégrale du rapport est disponible en anglais sur le site de l’OCDE.
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  • 15-October-2018

    English

    Responding to the Infrastructure Challenge - Governing Public-Private Partnerships at the Subnational Level

    This report focuses on the challenges of governing infrastructure investment and public-private partnerships (PPPs) at the subnational level. Sub-national governments – cities and regions - play a vital role in the infrastructure landscape. Infrastructure needs in energy, transport, water and telecommunications are substantial, estimated at USD 6.3 trillion per year between 2016 and 2030. In a tight fiscal environment, it is critical to diversify sources of financing for infrastructure investment and PPPs represent an alternative to traditional government procurement with the potential to improve value for money. However, PPPs are complex and sometimes risky arrangements that require capacity that is not always readily available in government, in particular at the subnational level. This report focuses on the challenges of using PPPs at the subnational level and ways to address them. It does so by focusing on three case studies: This report focuses on three case studies:  subnational PPPs in France, local Private Finance Initiative (PFI) projects in the United Kingdom, and PPPs in the US State of Virginia.
  • 30-September-2018

    English

    Survey on the sourcing practices of SMEs operating in the garment and footwear sector supply chain

    As part of the implementation strategy for the recently adopted OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains in the Garment and Footwear Sector, the OECD is conducting a series of surveys that target SMEs operating within the sector.

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  • 25-September-2018

    English

    Greece-OECD project: Technical support on anti-corruption

    The OECD, together with Greece and the European Commission, have developed support activities for implementing Greece’s National Anti-Corruption Action Plan. This project is being deployed by the OECD from October 2016 to December 2017.

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