Le basculement de l’activité économique vers les pays en développement a-t-il conduit à un accroissement des migrations internationales vers ces pays ? C’est une des questions auxquelles répond cette édition des Perspectives du développement mondial. Le rapport s’appuie sur les données les plus récentes concernant les migrations internationales entre 1995 et 2015. Il offre une nouvelle perspective sur les migrations en groupant les pays en fonction de leur croissance économique. Il décrit ainsi l’évolution globale récente des migrations internationales ainsi que les mouvements observés par groupe de pays. Le rapport explore les moteurs des migrations internationales et analyse le cas particulier des réfugiés. Les effets des politiques publiques (migratoires et sectorielles) sur les mouvements migratoires sont analysés aussi bien dans les pays d’origine que dans les pays de destination. Le rapport présente quatre scénarios illustrant l’évolution possible des migrations à l’horizon 2030. Il formule des recommandations en matière de politiques publiques afin de maximiser les bénéfices liés aux migrations non seulement dans les pays d’origine et de destination mais également pour les migrants eux-mêmes. De meilleures données, de nouveaux travaux de recherche et des politiques fondées sur les faits sont indispensables pour mieux se préparer à l’afflux croissant de migrants issus de pays en développement qui s’annonce. Il faut faire plus pour éviter les situations qui débouchent sur l’afflux massif de réfugiés ainsi que pour stimuler un développement mondial durable.
Cette version française est une version abrégée de la version originale de la publication, Perspectives on Global Development 2017: International Migration in a Shifting World. Elle inclut notamment l'éditorial, le résumé et le chapitre qui donne une vue d'ensemble du rapport.
The fully revamped and re-titled OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook is a biennial publication that aims to inform policy makers and analysts on recent and future changes in global science, technology and innovation (STI) patterns and their potential implications on and for national and international STI policies. Based on the most recent data available, the report provides comparative analysis of new policies and instruments being used in OECD countries and a number of major emerging economies (including Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, the Russian Federation and South Africa) to boost the contribution of science and innovation to growth and to global and social challenges. In this edition, detailed country and policy profiles are available on line.
The OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy offer a comprehensive assessment of the innovation system of individual OECD countries and partner economies, focusing on the role of government and concrete recommendations to boost innovation performance and R&D policies.
While Malaysia successfully transformed its economy from agriculture and mining towards manufacturing and more recently services, it is currently facing an economic slowdown and new competition. Mobilising new sources of growth will allow Malaysia to respond to these challenges and re-energise its economy through innovation-driven productivity gains.
The US food and agriculture sector is innovative, competitive and export-oriented. Changes in national and global demand offer further opportunities for US agri-food products, although climate change and other resource constraints could create additional challenges, in particular in some regions. Maintaining high productivity growth, while improving the sustainable use of resources will require further innovation. In a policy environment generally favourable to investment and innovation, the strong US agricultural innovation system is expected to continue to create innovations that will be widely adopted, to the extent that these can be widely accepted.
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Report prepared for the G20 Science, Technology and Innovation Ministers Meeting in Beijing, China, 4 November 2016
The 2017 edition of the Latin American Economic Outlook explores youth, skills and entrepreneurship. Young Latin Americans embody the region’s promise and perils. They stand at the crossroads of a region whose once promising economy and social progress are now undergoing a slowdown. The Outlook identifies potential strategies and policy responses to help Latin America and the Caribbean revive economic growth. While development can stem from different sources, skills and entrepreneurship can empower youth to develop knowledge-intensive economic activities, boost productivity and transform the region’s politics as they transition successfully from the world of school to the world of productive work and create that future they seek. The report highlights valuable experiences and best practices in these fields and proposes strategies to allow Latin America to consolidate long-term growth while assuring continuity in the social agenda.
After decades of innovation, satellites now play a discrete but pivotal role in the efficient functioning of modern societies and their economic development. This publication provides the findings from a OECD Space Forum project on the state of innovation in the space sector, with a view to examine how space innovation may impact the larger economy. New analysis and indicators contribute to answering some of the following questions: is the space sector still a driver for innovation in the 21st century? What are the determinants for an innovative space sector? And what are the policy responses to encourage and harness better space-related innovation?
Start-ups are gaining momentum in Latin America. Start-up Latin America 2016: Building an innovative future reviews the dynamics of start-ups and the policies for start-up promotion in four countries in the region – Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. The report reviews the policy mix for start-up promotion and highlights the progress made by each country and future challenges. It identifies good practices in promoting start-ups and lessons learned in Latin America in the design and implementation of policies.
The economic performance of Peru in recent times has been impressive. There is now a transition underway as commodity prices fall, and the key challenge for Peru is how to improve productivity and maintain this growth trajectory. Peru is a territorially diverse country and addressing these challenges will require policies that are designed for the specific needs of different cities and regions. The importance of regional policies is particularly important for the case of Peru. Within the OECD only four countries have a larger land mass. The physical geography of the country is shaped by a thin coastal region, the Andes and the Amazon forest in the interior. These different areas are not well connected and have vastly different levels of service provision and infrastructure. The report sets out how regional policies can be improved to address these challenges. This includes ensuring the preconditions (such as revenues, capabilities and coordinating mechanisms) are in place for decentralisation to work. Lifting national productivity will largely depend on well-functioning cities. The report also includes recommendations for how Peru can develop a comprehensive approach to urban policy, including enhancing linkages with rural areas.
Productivity growth in the Turkish agricultural sector is supported today by better technologies, crop varieties and animal breeds. Yet improvements have slowed since the late 2000s, and the productivity gap between agriculture and the rest of the economy remains large. To overcome these challenges, Turkey will need to reduce the substantial technological and human resource disparities between small-holder and commercial segments in agriculture, and ensure more equal regional development. Considerable structural adjustment is also required, both within agriculture and in the overall economy, supported by broad policy actions in the areas of labour, education, social security systems, and land reform. Important efforts have been made to boost national innovation systems, but there remains considerable catch up in terms of the quality and impact of R&D.