Since joining the OECD in 1996, Korea has made impressive progress in raising living standards. Over 1996-2016, the country closed the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita gap with the OECD average by 26 percentage points. Vibrant exports underpinned strong economic growth, with Korea becoming the eighth largest exporter in the world. The country’s focus on innovation (its R&D spending is the second highest in the OECD) combined with its highly skilled population (it is among the top performers in the OECD’s Programme of International Student Assessment) supported this success. However, the convergence of Korea’s living standards to those in the most advanced countries has stalled in recent years. Output growth has slowed from 4.4% annually over 2001-10 to 2.8% since 2011. The country faces strong competition from emerging economies, notably the People’s Republic of China in low- and medium-end markets, and with advanced economies in high-end markets. This makes it more difficult for Korea to further expand its global market share.
La pression démographique et la forte augmentation de la population jeune posent un défi majeur en matière d'emploi, exacerbé par la création insuffisante d'emplois, la rareté des opportunités d'emploi salarié formel et la vulnérabilité sur le lieu de travail. Encourager l'entrepreneuriat jeune a par conséquent pris de l'importance dans l'agenda politique de développement au niveau national et global. Cet ouvrage vise à contribuer au débat actuel sur le rôle de l'entrepreneuriat jeune dans la création d'emplois dans les pays en développement. Il se fonde sur l'analyse d'enquêtes sur la main-d'œuvre et les entreprises réalisées en Côte d'Ivoire, à Madagascar, au Pérou et au Viet Nam, ainsi que sur des évaluations de l’impact de programmes d'entrepreneuriat. Par ces résultats, le rapport enrichit le débat global sur l'entrepreneuriat jeune sur trois plans. Premièrement, il permet de saisir les situations réelles et les multiples visages des jeunes entrepreneurs dans une sélection de pays en développement. Deuxièmement, il fournit de nouvelles données empiriques sur les déterminants de la performance de l'entrepreneuriat jeune. Enfin, il propose une feuille de route politique basée sur les leçons apprises de méta-analyses récentes sur l'efficacité des programmes d'entrepreneuriat.
This paper synthesises the main policy implications of OECD work focusing on the interplay between participation and positioning in global value chains (GVCs), employment demand and supply, and workforce skills endowment.
There is now strong evidence that microbiomes play an important role in human health, as there are clear linkages to many major non-communicable diseases. This report assesses the key policy challenges for innovation in the microbiome. It argues that if such a promising scientific field is to lead to innovative applications, policies on science and innovation must be improved in five areas.
Norway has long used technology to streamline processes within the public sector and bring the government closer to citizens and businesses. Now the country is going further, seeking to transform its public sector through the full assimilation of digital technologies. The goal is to make it more efficient, collaborative, user- and data-driven, and better able to respond to the changing needs and expectations of citizens and businesses. This review analyses the efforts under way and provides policy advice to support the Norwegian government in implementing digital government.
Brazil’s Federal Court of Accounts, the Tribunal de Contas da União (TCU), is seeking to go beyond its traditional oversight role and help improve policy formulation, implementation and evaluation. This report identifies ways TCU can achieve this by applying principles of good governance to areas such policy coherence, strategic and long-term budgeting, internal control and risk management, and monitoring and evaluation. It suggests concrete steps TCU can take to adapt its own strategies, approaches and audit programming to provide valuable insight and foresight to policy makers in the centre of government. In this way, it can help ensure that policies and programmes are forward looking and based on evidence.
Kazakhstan is aware of the importance of innovation for its socio-economic development, including the diversification of its resource-based economy. Since the start of the millennium, Kazakhstan has put in place key components of a modern research and innovation system. This has helped improve scientific output and resulted in some successes in technology commercialisation. Further commitment and effort will be needed to strengthen innovation capabilities and make the most of Kazakhstan‘s advantages. This requires further reforms in order, notably, to strengthen the funding model of universities, intensify and broaden knowledge transfer, improve the governance of the research and innovation system, and increase the effectiveness of innovation incentives and policies, with a focus on implementation and evaluation.
This compendium of good practices was prepared by the OECD at the request of the G20 Anti-corruption Working Group (ACWG), to raise awareness of the benefits of the digital transformation in the public sector, including governance, productivity, economic development and social innovation.
Following a remarkable transformation in the past century in research and innovation, in particular through the development of new technologies and processes in sectors such as oil and gas, shipbuilding and also fisheries and aquaculture, Norway is today increasingly facing a “triple transition imperative” in which it needs, first, to shift toward a more diversified and robust economy; second, to move to a more competitive, effective and efficient innovation system; and third, to support research and innovation activities that can confront an array of societal challenges (climate change, food security, aging, health and so on). The Long-Term Plan for Research and Higher Education 2015-2024 (LTP) launched by the Norwegian government has set the base to enhance the capacity of the research and higher education system to cope with these transition challenges. This report proposes recommendations to take advantage of the revision of this comprehensive strategic plan in 2018 to improve the horizontal coordination and add more concrete structural policy initiatives, without changing the plan’s general orientation nor giving up the sectorial and the consensus principles that form the basis of Norwegian policy making.
Although Finland achieved a widely acclaimed transformation to become a leading knowledge-based economy in the late 20th century, the 2009 recession and disruptive change contributing to a deep restructuring of the information and communication technology (ICT) industry and the downsizing of traditional sectors have weighed on the economy, productivity growth and international competitiveness. Numerous policy reforms have since been undertaken, and public and private investment, especially in applied R&D, has been cut back. Strengthening and lifting Finland’s innovation system out of a period of uncertainty requires a coherent and unified new vision for science, technology and innovation (STI), renewed investment and policy instruments. This vision should be oriented towards renewal tackling societal challenges and developing new knowledge-based competitive advantages at global scale. Success calls for better co-ordination and co-operation among policy actors and national and regional-levels, and further internationalisation.