This publication examines the opportunities and challenges, for business and government, associated with technologies bringing about the “next production revolution”. These include a variety of digital technologies (e.g. 3D printing, the Internet of Things and advanced robotics), industrial biotechnology, 3D printing, new material and nanotechnology. Some of these technologies are already used in production, while others will be available in the near future. All are developing rapidly. As these technologies transform the production and the distribution of goods and services, they will have far-reaching consequences for productivity, skills, income distribution, well-being and the environment. The more that governments and firms understand how production could develop in the near future, the better placed they will be to prepare for the risks and reap the benefits.
This report provides an independent and comparative assessment of the overall performance of Kazakhstan’s innovation system since independence, with recommendations on improving performance drawing on the experience of other OECD countries in innovation processes, systems and policies. While many key components of the research and innovation system have been implemented (legal infrastructure, policy implementation instruments, and new research institutions), spurring a full-blown innovation-based development in Kazakhstan means extending innovation across the system as a whole, connecting higher education institutions with research institutes, igniting “technology pull” from businesses (and modernising these), and linking up commercialisation processes between universities and firms. Policy implementation will also require independent external monitoring and evaluation, and better co-ordination and co-operation between different policy actors.
This report benchmarks digital government strategies in MENA countries against OECD standards and best practices. Using the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Digital Government Strategies as analytical framework, the report provides an in-depth look at the efforts made by Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia and the United Arab Emirates to use digital technologies strategically to support broader policy objectives. New technologies can help foster economic value creation, make institutions more inclusive, improve competitiveness and promote effective decision-making in the public sector. This report also assesses the use of ICTs to strengthen trust in government through greater openness and engagement, and suggests how MENA countries can better co-ordinate and steer the digital transformation of the public sector.
This new report highlights the latest trends in government innovation. The topics identified through this review are not the only trends and examples in government innovation, but they do provide a glimpse of where government innovation stands today and where it may be going tomorrow.
English, PDF, 8,238kb
This report provides an assessment of G20 economies’ performance with respect to digitalisation and examines some of the most pressing policy challenges in areas spanning from access to digital infrastructures to digital security to legal frameworks. It includes a set of 11 core policy recommendations that could underpin a comprehensive G20 digital agenda.
Le basculement de l’activité économique vers les pays en développement a-t-il conduit à un accroissement des migrations internationales vers ces pays ? C’est une des questions auxquelles répond cette édition des Perspectives du développement mondial. Le rapport s’appuie sur les données les plus récentes concernant les migrations internationales entre 1995 et 2015. Il offre une nouvelle perspective sur les migrations en groupant les pays en fonction de leur croissance économique. Il décrit ainsi l’évolution globale récente des migrations internationales ainsi que les mouvements observés par groupe de pays. Le rapport explore les moteurs des migrations internationales et analyse le cas particulier des réfugiés. Les effets des politiques publiques (migratoires et sectorielles) sur les mouvements migratoires sont analysés aussi bien dans les pays d’origine que dans les pays de destination. Le rapport présente quatre scénarios illustrant l’évolution possible des migrations à l’horizon 2030. Il formule des recommandations en matière de politiques publiques afin de maximiser les bénéfices liés aux migrations non seulement dans les pays d’origine et de destination mais également pour les migrants eux-mêmes. De meilleures données, de nouveaux travaux de recherche et des politiques fondées sur les faits sont indispensables pour mieux se préparer à l’afflux croissant de migrants issus de pays en développement qui s’annonce. Il faut faire plus pour éviter les situations qui débouchent sur l’afflux massif de réfugiés ainsi que pour stimuler un développement mondial durable.
Cette version française est une version abrégée de la version originale de la publication, Perspectives on Global Development 2017: International Migration in a Shifting World. Elle inclut notamment l'éditorial, le résumé et le chapitre qui donne une vue d'ensemble du rapport.
The fully revamped and re-titled OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook is a biennial publication that aims to inform policy makers and analysts on recent and future changes in global science, technology and innovation (STI) patterns and their potential implications on and for national and international STI policies. Based on the most recent data available, the report provides comparative analysis of new policies and instruments being used in OECD countries and a number of major emerging economies (including Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, the Russian Federation and South Africa) to boost the contribution of science and innovation to growth and to global and social challenges. In this edition, detailed country and policy profiles are available on line.
Twenty years into its membership in the OECD, Poland has achieved impressive progress in terms of the living standards of its citizens. The country did not only manage to significantly reduce the GDP per capita gap with other OECD countries, but it also caught up with respect to several other dimensions of well-being. To ensure further widespread improvements in living standards, Poland needs to continue to move towards higher-technology production, boosting productivity and improving access to high-quality jobs and good pay. This report reviews recently implemented and planned reforms that aim to achieve these goals and proposes further policy measures to help Poland make the shift towards a more knowledge-based economy. To safeguard inclusiveness, it is crucial that the government also put in place appropriate policies to ensure that no one is left behind during this transformation and that all firms and all citizens can equally participate in and benefit from it.
The OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy offer a comprehensive assessment of the innovation system of individual OECD countries and partner economies, focusing on the role of government and concrete recommendations to boost innovation performance and R&D policies.
While Malaysia successfully transformed its economy from agriculture and mining towards manufacturing and more recently services, it is currently facing an economic slowdown and new competition. Mobilising new sources of growth will allow Malaysia to respond to these challenges and re-energise its economy through innovation-driven productivity gains.
The US food and agriculture sector is innovative, competitive and export-oriented. Changes in national and global demand offer further opportunities for US agri-food products, although climate change and other resource constraints could create additional challenges, in particular in some regions. Maintaining high productivity growth, while improving the sustainable use of resources will require further innovation. In a policy environment generally favourable to investment and innovation, the strong US agricultural innovation system is expected to continue to create innovations that will be widely adopted, to the extent that these can be widely accepted.