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Publications & Documents


  • 10-April-2019

    English

    University-Industry Collaboration - New Evidence and Policy Options

    This report discusses challenges and opportunities in assessing the impacts of science-industry knowledge exchange on innovation. The report provides new evidence on joint industry-science patenting activity and academic start-ups, as well as on the impact of geographical proximity between research institutions and industry on local innovation. The report explores the complex set of knowledge-transfer channels, such as collaborative research, co-patenting, academic spinoffs, and their relative importance across science fields and industry sectors. It also experiments with using labour force survey data to assess the contributions of graduates in social sciences to different industries.Different policy mixes are used in OECD countries to stimulate science-industry knowledge transfer. This report presents a taxonomy of 21 policy instruments, which include grants for collaborative university-industry research and financial support to university spin-offs, and discusses their possible positive and negative interactions. Based on a number of country case studies, the report also sheds light on new policy approaches to support spin-off creation. The report also explores recent trends on the governance of public research of high relevance to science-industry knowledge transfer using newly developed policy indicators for 35 OECD countries.
  • 10-April-2019

    English

    Digital Innovation - Seizing Policy Opportunities

    This report discusses how the digital transformation – digital technologies, data and software, AI-based analytics and other advances – is changing innovation processes and outcomes. It highlights the general trends across the economy and factors behind sector-specific dynamics, including increasing use of data as a key input for innovation, the expanding possibilities for experimentation offered by virtual simulation, 3D printing and other digital technologies, and the growing focus on services innovation enabled by digital technologies.In view of such changes, this report evaluates how innovation policies should adapt to foster innovation and inclusive development in the digital age, and identifies priority areas for policy action. It also explores novel innovation policy approaches implemented by countries to foster digital technology adoption and collaborative innovation.
  • 5-April-2019

    English

    Science-industry knowledge exchange: A mapping of policy instruments and their interactions

    Countries deploy a variety of policy instruments to promote science-industry knowledge exchange. While these instruments are often discussed in isolation, they are implemented collectively and may negatively affect each other or add excessive complexity. This paper develops a conceptual framework to map policy instruments for knowledge exchange and assess interactions.

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  • 3-April-2019

    English

    Business Models for the Circular Economy - Opportunities and Challenges for Policy

    Natural resources, and the materials derived from them, represent the physical basis for the economic system. Recent decades have witnessed an unprecedented growth in demand for these resources, which has triggered interest from policy makers in transitioning to a more resource efficient and circular economy. This report presents a typology of five circular business models that could support the transition to a more resource efficient and circular economy: circular supply, resource recovery, product life extension, sharing, and product service system models. It reviews the current market penetration and assesses the potential scalability of each business model. Environmental potential is also discussed, as well as risks and unintended consequences that could result from a more widespread adoption of these business models. The report provides a broad set of policy approaches that could help alleviate some of the barriers that currently hinder the widespread adoption of circular business models.
  • 1-April-2019

    English

    Measuring Tax Support for R&D and Innovation

    Governments worldwide increasingly rely on tax incentives in addition to direct support measures (e.g. grants) to promote R&D in firms and encourage innovation and economic growth. The OECD has developed experimental methodologies and a detailed database on R&D tax incentives with the latest indicators on the cost and information on the design and scope of R&D tax incentives.

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  • 29-March-2019

    English

    Public research and innovative entrepreneurship: Preliminary cross-country evidence from micro data

    This paper provides a first assessment of the degree to which public research contributes to innovative entrepreneurship, using data on start-ups and venture capital.

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  • 29-March-2019

    English

    Reference framework for assessing the scientific and socio-economic impact of research infrastructures

    This report provides funders, decision-makers and research infrastructure (RI) managers with a versatile tool, based on current community practices, to evaluate the achievement of scientific and socio-economic objectives realistically. The framework can be adapted for different types of RIs and different stages in the RI life cycle.

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  • 15-March-2019

    English

    Open Science

    The OECD is working with member and non-member economies to review policies to promote open science and to assess their impact on research and innovation.

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  • 11-March-2019

    English, PDF, 620kb

    Fostering science and innovation in the digital age - policy note

    Digitalisation is reshaping all stages of science, from agenda setting to experimentation, knowledge sharing and public engagement.

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  • 11-March-2019

    English

    Going Digital: Shaping Policies, Improving Lives

    Digital technologies and data are transformational. People, firms and governments live, interact, work and produce differently than in the past, and these changes are accelerating rapidly. How can we realise the immense promises of digital technologies and data for growth and well-being in a fast evolving world? This report charts the road ahead. It identifies seven policy dimensions that allow governments – together with citizens, firms and stakeholders – to shape digital transformation to improve lives. It also highlights key opportunities, challenges and policies related to each dimension, offers new insights, evidence and analysis, and provides recommendations for better policies in the digital age.
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