This publication examines the opportunities and challenges, for business and government, associated with technologies bringing about the “next production revolution”. These include a variety of digital technologies (e.g. the Internet of Things and advanced robotics), industrial biotechnology, 3D printing, new materials and nanotechnology. Some of these technologies are already used in production, while others will be available in the near future. All are developing rapidly. As these technologies transform the production and the distribution of goods and services, they will have far-reaching consequences for productivity, skills, income distribution, well-being and the environment. The more that governments and firms understand how production could develop in the near future, the better placed they will be to address the risks and reap the benefits.
Between 2000 and 2010, US manufacturing experienced a nightmare. The number of manufacturing jobs in the United States, which had been relatively stable at 17 million since 1965, declined by one third in that decade, falling by 5.8 million to below 12 million in 2010 (returning to just 12.3 million in 2016). Certainly, the 2007–08 recession accelerated the disruption, but the causes were also structural, not simply financial.
Ces dernières années ont été marquées par un phénomène de rejet de la mondialisation. Jamais les coûts d’une ouverture et d’une connectivité accrues – y compris les conséquences de la libéralisation des échanges et de l’investissement – n'ont été autant mis en balance avec leurs avantages, bien des voix se faisant entendre pour plaider en faveur d’une pause, voire d’une inversion, du mouvement mondial d’intégration qui a été la marque des trois dernières décennies. Si ce rejet s’explique par de multiples raisons économiques, sociales et politiques, on dispose d'éléments en nombre suffisant montrant que les oubliés de la mondialisation sont nombreux, en particulier dans la moitié inférieure de l’échelle de distribution des revenus, notamment dans les pays avancés. Ce rejet montre que nous devons agir rapidement pour remettre la mondialisation sur les rails et nous assurer que ses avantages seront plus équitablement partagés. Les conséquences d’une possible inversion de l’intégration mondiale pourraient être graves : un regain de protectionnisme pourrait se traduire par une perte nette de richesse et d’opportunités, et l’adoption de politiques de repli national mettrait en péril nombre des avancées acquises au fil des dernières décennies.
Recorded message from Colin MacDonald, Chair of the Working Party of Digital Government Officials (E-Leaders), delivered at the 55th Session of the OECD Public Governance Committee on the relevance of the digital transformation and its implications for public sectors
This paper analyses the role that inclusive innovation policies can play in tackling social, industrial and territorial inclusiveness challenges by drawing on 33 detailed policy examples from 15 countries. The paper discusses why these policies should be a priority, explores the specific challenges that arise in their implementation, and provides recommendations as to how the challenges can best be addressed.
Costa Rica’s successful economic performance and social achievements realised over the last three decades are widely acknowledged. GDP per capita has steadily increased at higher rates than in most Latin American countries as the economy has evolved along its development path from a rural and agriculture-based to a more diversified economy integrated in global value chains. But Costa Rica faces challenges and must enhance and broaden the basis for productivity growth by strengthening its innovation system and enhancing the role of science, technology and innovation in addressing its national development goals.
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We cover a vast range of topics, developing evidence-based policy advice on the contribution of science, technology and innovation to economies and societies. From business dynamics and productivity to GVCs and the evolution of the digital economy, and from innovation for social challenges to alleviating excess capacity in heavy industries, we seek to provide new insights for policymakers. We also "go national" with in-depth reviews.
This paper is a first attempt to analyse the linkages between both types of networks and identify a number possible government implications. The motivation for this analysis is that concerns are raised in policy discussions that countries are not able to capture the value of their innovative activities.
This joint OECD and World Bank Group report, presented to G20 Trade Ministers in October 2015, focuses on the challenge of making GVCs more “inclusive” by overcoming participation constraints for SMEs and facilitating access for LIDCs. Results suggest that SME participation in GVCs is mostly taking place through indirect contribution to exports (rather than through direct exports), and that a holistic approach to trade, investment and national and multilateral policy action is needed to create more inclusive GVCs.
The report highlights the importance of ensuring access to ICT networks – in particular broadband – and stimulating innovation – in particular by enhancing the ability of SMEs to manage and protect their intellectual assets. At the same, the report underscores the importance of helping small firms scale up quickly, and to better integrate in GVCs by lowering barriers to the entry, growth and exit of firms. Countries should also avoid favouring incumbents over new firms.
This report discusses the mechanisms through which innovations based on information and communication technologies (ICT) may have effects on social inclusion. A core focus is on exploring how innovation policies can contribute to inclusive growth and how they can be implemented efficiently. Moreover, the report discusses the role policies expanding access to higher education can play in supporting inclusive growth.