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Reports


  • 27-January-2020

    English

    OECD Skills Strategy Slovak Republic - Assessment and Recommendations

    Skills are the key to shaping a better future and central to the capacity of countries and people to thrive in an increasingly interconnected and rapidly changing world. Megatrends such as globalisation, technological advances and demographic change are reshaping work and society, generating a growing demand for higher levels and new sets of skills.OECD Skills Strategy projects provide a strategic and comprehensive approach to assess countries’ skills challenges and opportunities and help them build more effective skills systems. The OECD works collaboratively with countries to develop policy responses that are tailored to each country’s specific skills needs. The foundation of this approach is the OECD Skills Strategy Framework, which allows for an exploration of what countries can do better to 1) develop relevant skills over the life course; 2) use skills effectively in work and in society; and 3) strengthen the governance of the skills system.This report, 'OECD Skills Strategy Slovak Republic: Assessment and Recommendations', identifies opportunities and makes recommendations to strengthen the skills of youth, reduce skills imbalances, foster greater participation in adult learning and strengthen the use of skills in the workplace.
  • 19-December-2019

    English

    Investment policies related to national security and public order

    While foreign investment supports growth and development, creates jobs and enhances welfare, it carries a potential risk for the host country’s national security or public order. This is why international instruments and agreements recognise countries’ rights to manage such risks.

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  • 19-décembre-2019

    Français

    Hausse du niveau des mers - Les approches des pays de l'OCDE face aux risques côtiers

    L’adaptation des zones côtières aux impacts du changement climatique est désormais une urgence. La hausse du niveau des mers et des pressions immobilières va certainement y accroître les risques, selon les prévisions. En quoi les processus nationaux de planification de l’adaptation des pays de l’OCDE peuvent-ils nous aider à répondre à ce défi ? C’est la question à laquelle répond cet ouvrage. Il expose clairement les diverses conceptions du partage des coûts et des responsabilités en matière de gestion des risques côtiers. Il examine ensuite si celles-ci encouragent ou dissuadent les ménages, les entreprises et les différents niveaux de gouvernement d’adopter des comportements qui réduisent les risques. Cet ouvrage décrit les instruments d’action que les autorités nationales peuvent employer pour favoriser une réaction efficiente, efficace et équitable face aux changements qui affectent le littoral. Il s’appuie sur de nouvelles analyses des coûts futurs de la hausse du niveau des mers et sur les principaux résultats de quatre études de cas (Allemagne, Canada, Nouvelle-Zélande et Royaume Uni).
  • 19-December-2019

    English

    Access to Green Finance for SMEs in Georgia

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in Georgia’s economy. SMEs provide more than 67% of employment and about 62% of gross value added. Although the environmental footprint of individual SMEs may be low, their aggregate impact in many respects exceeds that of large businesses. Commercial banks have an important role to play in providing access to green finance, particularly for SMEs. This report reviews the experience with green lending in the SME sector in Georgia. The analysis identifies the main challenges with lending to SMEs for green projects and discusses possible solutions. The report, in particular, looks at the role of the government and the policy instruments it can use to stimulate higher demand for green lending in the SME sector.
  • 11-décembre-2019

    Français

    Manuel d’Oslo 2018 - Lignes directrices pour le recueil, la communication et l’utilisation des données sur l’innovation, 4ème édition

    Qu'est-ce que l'innovation et comment s'y prendre pour la mesurer ? Comprendre l'échelle des activités d'innovation, les caractéristiques des entreprises innovantes, ainsi que les facteurs internes et systémiques en jeu est une condition préalable essentielle à la mise en œuvre et l'analyse des politiques destinées à stimuler l'innovation. Paru pour la première fois en 1992, le Manuel d'Oslo s'est imposé comme une référence internationale pour la collecte et l'utilisation des données sur l'innovation. Pour cette quatrième édition, le manuel a été étoffé afin de couvrir un éventail plus large de phénomènes liés à l'innovation et de tenir compte de l'expérience acquise au fil des cycles récents des enquêtes connexes réalisées dans les pays de l'OCDE, dans les économies partenaires et par d'autres organisations.
  • 10-December-2019

    English

    Steel Market Developments

    These reports provide an overview of recent supply and demand developments and, when available, forecasts from publicly available sources.

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  • 5-December-2019

    English

    Supporting Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Higher Education in Italy

    Universities’ entrepreneurship and innovative practices are burgeoning all over Italy. Some of these practices resonate at the international level while others have a local impact. Italian higher education faces some important challenges and actions need to be taken to unleash its full potential. Promoting the entrepreneurial and innovation agenda can help Italy improve the overall performance of the higher education system, and of individual universities, in all regions. The government has started providing a strategic support to engagement, which could catalyse Italy’s innovation capacity, human capital endowment, and well-being.This review illustrates policy actions promoting the entrepreneurial and innovative activities in the Italian Higher Education System, and focuses on 11 case study universities. It discusses strategies and practices adopted by Italian higher education institutions to innovate, engage, and generate value for the society and the economy. This review is part of a series of national reports implementing the HEinnovate framework. HEinnovate is a guiding framework that the OECD and the European Commission have developed to promote the 'entrepreneurial and innovation agenda' in higher education.
  • 21-November-2019

    English

    Freedom of investment at the OECD

    International investment spurs prosperity and economic development in home and recipient countries. Policy coordination helps governments resist protectionist pressures and develop effective policies. The OECD's Freedom of Investment process brings together some 56 governments from around the world to exchange information and experiences on investment policies at regular roundtables.

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  • 21-November-2019

    English

    Monitoring investment and trade measures

    G20 Leaders are firmly committed to open trade and investment and to resisting protectionism in all its forms. They have mandated WTO, OECD and UNCTAD – the leading international organisations in the area of international trade and investment policies – to monitor policy developments and report publicly on these commitments.

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  • 18-November-2019

    English

    The Supply of Medical Isotopes - An Economic Diagnosis and Possible Solutions

    This report explores the main reasons behind the unreliable supply of Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) in health-care systems and policy options to address the issue. Tc-99m is used in 85% of nuclear medicine diagnostic scans performed worldwide – around 30 million patient examinations every year. These scans allow diagnoses of diseases in many parts of the human body, including the skeleton, heart and circulatory system, and the brain. Medical isotopes are subject to radioactive decay and have to be delivered just-in-time through a complex supply chain. However, ageing production facilities and a lack of investment have made the supply of Tc-99m unreliable. This report analyses the use and substitutability of Tc-99m in health care, health-care provider payment mechanisms for scans, and the structure of the supply chain. It concludes that the main reasons for unreliable supply are that production is not economically viable and that the structure of the supply chain prevents producers from charging prices that reflect the full costs of production and supply.
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