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  • 16-December-2020

    English

    The changing characteristics of steel firms - Insights from the new OECD steel database

    Information on the structural characteristics of steel firms over time provides important insights into the dynamics of the steel industry and how this industry has been restructuring and adapting in a rapidly changing environment. This paper builds on data from the new and unique OECD Steel database to shed light on the micro determinants of changes in the steel sector. The OECD Steel database provides invaluable insights into the characteristics of steel plants and steel firms, and how they have evolved in the last 20 years. Results from the analyses in this paper suggest that the steel sector could benefit from increased business dynamism, while data show that economies of scale and technology are important factors influencing adjustment in the sector. The paper concludes by offering several different avenues for future research that could build upon the OECD Steel database.
  • 15-December-2020

    English

    OECD-FAO Guidance for Responsible Agricultural Supply Chains

    As the demand for food increases, agriculture will continue to attract investment and new actors may be confronted with ethical dilemmas and find it difficult to implement responsible business conduct in their practices. In this context the OECD and the FAO are working together to develop due diligence guidance to help enterprises observe existing widely-supported standards for RBC along agricultural supply chains.

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  • 15-December-2020

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Georgia

    Georgia’s reform trajectory has been nothing short of remarkable. In less than two decades, successive structural, regulatory and economic reforms have propelled Georgia from one of the poorest post-Soviet states to an upper-middle income economy. Georgia ranks among the best performers in the world according to international indices on doing business and openness to foreign investment – achievements many countries look to for inspiration. Yet in recent years, the Georgian government has reflected on why these reforms have not facilitated more broad-based economic growth. FDI attraction has been strong relative to the size of the Georgian economy, but the positive benefits of investment have not been fully realised. Mobilising investment in sectors that can enhance job creation, exports and productivity will be key for Georgia’s recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. This Investment Policy Review takes stock of recent achievements in improving the investment climate and assesses areas for the government to consider in strengthening its reform efforts to attract FDI that can have a positive impact on inclusive, sustainable growth.
  • 15-December-2020

    English

    Cross border investment by state-owned enterprises

    The paper analyses data on state-owned enterprises as cross-border investors and takes a first step towards analysing their investment characteristics since 2000. It shows that the number of cross-border investments by state-owned enterprises was overall small, with most originating from the People’s Republic of China (hereafter 'China'), and suggests that the investment preferences of state-owned enterprises may fuel excess capacity in the steel sector. This is because state-owned enterprises display a preference for building new capacity over acquiring existing capacity when investing abroad, and a preference for investment destinations with volatile demand growth. Data also suggest that state-owned enterprises might be more likely to undertake domestic capacity closures after a cross-border investment, which is likely influenced by recent policies introduced to curb excess capacity in China. Conversely, the data offer insufficient evidence regarding the link between cross-border investment by state-owned enterprises and capacity outcomes in target jurisdictions.
  • 11-December-2020

    English

    Steel Market Developments

    These reports provide an overview of recent supply and demand developments and, when available, forecasts from publicly available sources.

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  • 3-December-2020

    English

    Preparing the Basque Country, Spain for the Future of Work

    COVID-19 is testing the Basque Country’s (Spain) resilience. Before COVID-19, employment indicators were recovering from the 2008 crisis, while automation of production was underway. Job quality remained low despite rising educational attainment in the region. COVID-19 is likely to accelerate structural changes in the labour market, including automation and digitalisation. Firms may increasingly look to technology as a way to pandemic proof their operations, while individuals may develop preferences for automated services as opposed to face to face contact. This OECD report sheds light on the potential impacts of automation on the Basque labour market, including which types of jobs and groups of workers are most likely to be impacted, in light of COVID-19 and other labour market changes. The report also highlights the critical role to be played by employment services, training policies and social dialogue to help people and firms make labour market transitions while upholding social cohesion. The report delves into how the Basque Country’s employment and skills system can continue to be at the front line as the crisis evolves.
  • 30-November-2020

    English, PDF, 2,511kb

    Responsible Business Conduct Country Fact Sheet: Brazil

    The OECD, in partnership with the International Labour Organisation, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the European Union has launched a four-year programme (2019-2022) to promote and enable Responsible Business Conduct practices in Latin America and the Caribbean in nine partner countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama and Peru).

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  • 27-November-2020

    English

    OECD Digital Economy Outlook 2020

    The OECD Digital Economy Outlook 2020 examines trends and analyses emerging opportunities and challenges in the digital economy. It highlights how OECD countries and partner economies are taking advantage of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and the Internet to meet their public policy objectives. Through comparative evidence, it informs policy makers of regulatory practices and policy options to help maximise the potential of the digital economy as a driver for innovation and inclusive growth. This third edition of the OECD Digital Economy Outlook provides a holistic overview of converging trends, policy developments and data on both the supply and demand sides of the digital economy. It illustrates how the digital transformation is affecting economies and societies. Finally, it provides a special focus on how the COVID-19 pandemic is amplifying opportunities and challenges from the digital transformation.
  • 24-novembre-2020

    Français

    Science, technologie et innovation: Tableau de bord de l'OCDE

    La nouvelle plateforme STI.Scoreboard offre la possibilité d’extraire, visualiser, comparer et partager plus de 1000 indicateurs statistiques des systèmes de science, technologie et innovation pour les pays de l'OCDE ainsi que plusieurs autres économies.

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  • 23-November-2020

    English

    CO2 emissions embodied in international trade and domestic final demand - Methodology and results using the OECD Inter-Country Input-Output Database

    This paper describes the sources and methods used to estimate carbon emissions embodied in final demand and international gross trade for 65 economies over the period 2005-2015. Earlier OECD analyses of carbon footprints, accounting for global production networks, helped raise awareness of divergences between territorial and resident principles, and between production-based and consumption-based carbon emissions. Understanding the differences in these measures is important for governments to better understand and address greenhouse gas mitigation options. Thus, a new refined methodology was applied to allocate territorial emissions to production-based emissions (industries and households) using OECD Inter-Country Input-Output tables and International Energy Agency (IEA) CO2 emissions from fuel combustion statistics. In particular, this methodology introduces: 1) explicit distinctions between territorial and resident principles, economic output and final demand-based emissions and emissions embodied in gross imports and exports; 2) estimates by major fuel combustion sources; and 3) fuel purchases by non-resident industries and households.
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