Le financement des petites et moyennes entreprises (PME) a passé la phase de repli observée durant la crise financière mondiale, mais les conditions globales de crédit demeurent tendues et l’accès à des financements externes reste bien plus difficile pour les PME que pour les grandes entreprises, selon un nouveau rapport de l’OCDE.
SMEs typically account for more than half of business sector activity and around two-thirds of employment. Young SMEs, in particular, contribute disproportionately to creating jobs. Yet business dynamics have been slowing in most of our economies, limiting SMEs’ contributions to investment, growth, jobs and social inclusion, at a moment when they are sorely needed.
This report presents an overview of existing environmental credit lines in the EU’s Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine), which are mostly supported by International Finance Institutions and donors and disbursed by local commercial banks. Lessons learned from this type of credit-line implementation provide useful insights for spurring the banking sector into financing green investments.
In a period of sluggish employment growth and disappointing productivity trends in most OECD countries, the central role played by start-ups and young firms in creating jobs and bringing innovations to market acquires renewed importance in the policy debate.
This policy paper provides new cross-country evidence on the links between national policies and the growth patterns of start-ups. In particular, it compares for the first time the heterogeneous effects of national policies on entrants and incumbents, within the same country, industry, and time period. A number of key facts emerge.
Les pays devraient moderniser leur législation sur la protection des consommateurs de manière à répondre aux nouveaux risques posés par le commerce en ligne, y compris les applications « gratuites » et les transactions électroniques entre consommateurs, selon les nouvelles lignes directrices publiées par l’OCDE à l’intention des pays membres et des économies émergentes.
This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and "green" innovation in shipbuilding.
The 2016 Sweden Review of Innovation Policy deepens the 2012 Review by focusing on six policy initiatives central to the 2008 and 2012 Swedish Research and Innovation Bills, notably: 1) the increase in funding for university research, 2) the establishment of Strategic Research Areas, 3) actions designed to enhance the role of research institutes in Sweden’s innovation system, 4) the definition and funding of Strategic Innovation Areas in collaboration with industrial, academic and research institute actors, 5) the initiation of a Challenge-Driven Innovation programme addressing societal challenges, 6) improved prioritisation and support for Swedish participation in European research and innovation activities.
The OECD will draw on its multidisciplinary expertise, data, and tools – along with our ground-breaking work on climate finance, fossil fuel subsidy reform, measuring effective carbon prices, and policy alignment for a low-carbon economy – to deliver timely and evidence-based insights for this project, which has four main objectives.
The tourism industry in OECD countries continues to grow strongly despite economic weakness in advanced economies, and outperformed tourism globally in 2014. However, active, innovative and integrated policies are needed to ensure that tourism remains a competitive and sustainable sector, says OECD.