Every month, this newsletter delivers the latest reports, statistics and policy recommendations from the OECD on the translation of science, technology and knowledge into innovation.
Selon l’OCDE, les pouvoirs publics doivent repenser leurs politiques du tourisme pour encourager la diversité, réduire la concentration vers des destinations très recherchées et mettre en place des stratégies à long terme écologiquement durables et socialement inclusives.
Presentations and main topics discussed at the 83rd Session of the Steel Committee held in Paris, 28-29 September 2017.
This report assesses the state of Armenia’s sanitation services, which are in poor shape, and proposes ways forward for reforming the sector by: ensuring equitable access by all and identifying solutions that work for the poorest and most remote communities; generating economies of scale and scope, and reducing both investment and operational costs for the efficient delivery of sanitation services; and moving towards sustainable cost recovery for the sanitation sector, by identifying how much funding can be mobilised from within the sector and how much external transfers are required. The state of Armenia’s sanitation services are inadequate, with 51% of the population in rural areas using unimproved facilities, causing direct damage to the environment and exposing inhabitants to health risks, and better access but degraded sewerage-system infrastructure in urban areas, posing health hazards due to potential cross-contamination between sewage and drinking water. According to preliminary estimates, EUR 2.6 billion of investments will be required to meet Armenia’s sanitation needs, with approximately EUR 1 billion needing to be spent in the next 7 to 10 years. Given the country’s current economic situation, this investment will have to be spread over time and targeted to avoid further deterioration of infrastructure and increase of the financing gap.
L'activité entrepreneuriale semble se redresser enfin après la crise, puisque de nouvelles données montrent que le nombre de créations d'entreprises a augmenté dans la plupart des pays de l'OCDE.
The report, building on a policy dialogue with a range of stakeholders in Korea, analyses how economic policy instruments under the responsibility of the Korean Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport can be adjusted to contribute to water policy objectives. It also investigates how Smart Water Management Korea, an initiative by K-water that combines information and communication technology with water technology, can be harnessed to better contribute to water management in the country. Finally, it identifies some of the limitations of prevalent water allocation regimes which need to be addressed to make the best use of available water resources.
Since 1965, the Korean Government has invested heavily in quantitative development strategies to meet water needs, and despite highly variable water availability, this has allowed for and facilitated rapid urbanisation and economic growth. However, several long-term trends are expected to affect the capacity of the current water management system to adequately respond to current and future water risks, such as rapid ageing of the population, fiscal consolidation and climate change. These call for a renewed emphasis on water use efficiency.
The world’s nominal steelmaking capacity is estimated to reach 2.241 billion tonnes in 2014, more than double the capacity of 2000. The OECD is launches a database that details new investment projects in the industry by region and country in both developing and advanced economies through 2017 and beyond. The data portal makes data on steel projects in OECD countries fully accessible for the first time.
La Recommandation de 2013 du Conseil de l’OCDE sur l'égalité hommes-femmes en matière d'éducation, d'emploi et d'entrepreneuriat recommande d'adopter des pratiques qui favorisent l’égalité entre hommes et femmes en matière d’éducation, qui encouragent les politiques et les conditions de travail favorables à la vie de famille pour permettent aux pères et aux mères de concilier leurs horaires de travail et leurs responsabilités familiales, et qui aident les femmes à prendre davantage part à l’emploi dans le secteur privé et dans le secteur public. Cette recommandation préconise également d'augmenter la représentation des femmes aux postes décisionnels, en supprimant les discriminations liées aux écarts de salaire entre hommes et femmes, en encourageant toutes les mesures nécessaires pour que cesse le harcèlement sexuel au travail, en réduisant l’écart entre hommes et femmes dans l’activité entrepreneuriale, et en tenant compte des besoins particuliers des femmes issues de groupes minoritaires défavorisés et de l’immigration.
SMEs and entrepreneurs make an important contribution to the Canadian economy. SMEs account for 60% of total employment, and Canada performs very well across many measures of small business generation, growth and innovation. However, further increases in productivity in medium-sized firms, an increase in SME exports, a greater business start-up rate and an increased number of high-growth firms could bring substantial benefits for the national economy.
This report identifies several areas where new policy approaches could help achieve these objectives. Framework conditions for small business could be improved in business taxation, public procurement, access to financing and the commercialisation of research. New and extended programmes could be introduced in domains including entrepreneurship education, management advice and consultancy, and workforce skills development. A major effort is recommended to prioritise women's entrepreneurship, including by supporting social enterprises, and federal support could be offered to support the exchange of information on best practice SME regulations and programmes among provinces and territories. All this could be brought together and co-ordinated through the umbrella of a national strategy and a lead agency for SME and entrepreneurship policy.
The world economy is facing a number of structural shifts that may dramatically change the outlook for GVCs in the coming years. By describing how these shifts will likely evolve over the next 10-15 years and calculating their effects on global production and trade, the scenarios in this paper offer new, empirically funded insights on the future of GVCs.