Hungary’s new energy strategy, the National Energy Strategy to 2030, published in 2012, was a major step in formulating a long-term vision for government policy in the sector. The main objective of the strategy was to ensure a sustainable and secure energy sector while supporting the competitiveness of the economy.
Mindful of high energy costs and their impact on family incomes, the government initiated a policy of mandatory price cuts to reduce household energy bills. While the short-term impact has been a reduction in energy bills, in the long term, this policy may damage national competitiveness. Renewable energy production has increased significantly in the last decade but growth in the sector has slowed. Recent reforms and the introduction of a new support system for electricity from renewable sources could arrest this slowdown. On the other hand, measures that limit wind power developments are likely to have a negative impact on the sector.
Greenhouse gas emissions have declined as the economy has become less carbon-intensive. Nonetheless, the country could adopt more ambitious targets for emission reductions. Energy security has been strengthened and there have been a number of large investments in oil, electricity and natural gas infrastructure. Further investments are expected, notably the construction of two new nuclear power generating units.
This latest review of Hungary’s energy policies, the first since 2011, examines the current energy-policy landscape and makes recommendations for improvements. These recommendations are intended to guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
The tax burden on labour income is expressed by the tax wedge, which is a measure of the net tax burden on labour income borne by the employee and the employer.
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Hungary had the 3rd highest tax wedge among the 35 OECD member countries in 2016. The country had the 4th highest position in 2015. The average single worker in Hungary faced a tax wedge of 48.2% in 2016 compared with the OECD average of 36.0%.
These country specific notes provide figures and commentary from the Taxation and Skills publication that examines how tax policy can encourage skills development in OECD countries.
There are now 45 Adherents to the 2009 OECD Declaration on Green Growth. Georgia has joined Costa Rica, Colombia, Croatia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Morocco, Peru, Tunisia, as well as OECD members in having adhered to the Declaration.
As part of the STI Outlook 2016, the OECD has released policy profiles by country. These include cross-country analyses that draw on the first joint EC-OECD survey on STI policies. They focus on major STI policy areas, instruments and trends.
This publication provides detailed country notes on Value Added Tax/Goods and Services Tax (VAT/GST) and excise duty rates in OECD member countries.
This annual publication presents detailed country notes and internationally comparable tax data for all OECD countries from 1965 onwards.
OECD-GVH Regional Centre for Competition in Budapest website
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This country note provides an environmental tax and carbon pricing profile for Hungary. It shows environmentally related tax revenues, taxes on energy use and effective carbon rates.