English, , 364kb
China has made crucial progress in the field of public expenditure management in the past ten years. This article reviews the reforms in budget formulation, approval, implementation and audit. Some weaknesses remain: for example, important decisions are still made outside of the budget process; and the highly decentralised fiscal system means that achievements at the national level have not been implemented at provincial and lower
English, , 363kb
This article discusses the reforms introduced in the Netherlands since the 1980s to improve the transparency and efficiency of government programmes: programme budgeting, policy orientation, and interdepartmental policy reviews. The impact on the budget structure and process is described. An annex explains some typical characteristics of the Dutch budgetary process.
English, , 347kb
This article describes the performance budgeting reforms of the government of Canada, the five main lessons learned over the past 30 years, and the current initiatives to strengthen performance measurement for the future.
English, , 680kb
Switzerland’s public accounting system has been completely overhauled. The New Accounting Model for the Confederation was used for the first time to prepare the 2007 budget and the 2008-10 financial plan. This article examines the fundamental new directions of financial management in Switzerland.
English, , 797kb
Major features of the Dutch fiscal framework are the trend-based fiscal framework with real net expenditure ceilings for the whole term of government, the role of independent organisations like the Central Planning Bureau (CPB), Statistics Netherlands and the Netherlands Court of Audit, and the intermediary role of the National Advisory Group on Budgetary Principles. This article describes the Dutch fiscal framework, its role in
English, , 132kb
Management by performance began in Sweden’s public administration in the late 1980s, both as a tool for the government’s budget process and as a way for the government to control its agencies. This article discusses various aspects of the performance system in the Swedish context.
English, , 198kb
This article describes the history of performance management in the United States government, including the Budget and Performance Integration initiative (BPI), the Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART), and the dedicated Internet site www.ExpectMore.gov.
English, , 453kb
This article describes the development and current content of the performance management system in the Danish central government. Since the 1980s, innovations have included results-based management, performance contracts, activity-based budgeting, accrual accounting and budgeting, and the use of evaluations and reports.
English, , 166kb
This article describes how the principles of management for results have worked in practice over the past two decades in Australia. The current performance information framework involves, among other things, the accrual-based outcomes and outputs policy, performance agreements between heads of agencies and their responsible ministers, and regular review and assessment, particularly at agency level.
English, , 680kb
The EU 15 project is a partnership between the OECD and the EU Commission. It aims to assess regulatory management capacities in 15 member states of the EU, describes trends in their development, and identifies gaps in relation to good practice.