Co-operation based on loosely-structured, peer to peer ties developed through frequent interaction rather than formal negotiation involving specialized domestic officials (typically regulators) directly interacting with each other (through structured dialogues, MOU,…), often with minimal supervision by foreign ministries.
Trans-governmental networks are multiplying fast and vary widely in their constituency, governance structure and operational mode. Drawing an exhaustive list would not be easy. Box A provides some examples.
Box A. Selection of trans-governmental networks
The European Public Administration Network is an informal network of the Directors General responsible for Public Administration in the Member States of the European Union whose mission is to improve the performance, competitiveness and quality of European public administrations by developing new tools and methods in the field of public administration: www.eupan.eu/en/content/show/&tid=188
The Basel committee on Banking Supervision provides a forum for regular cooperation on banking supervisory matters: www.bis.org/bcbs
The International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) gathers agencies committed to cooperate in developing, implementing and promoting adherence to internationally recognised and consistent standards of regulation, oversight and enforcement in order to protect investors, maintain fair, efficient and transparent markets, and seek to address systemic risks: www.iosco.org
The International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS) represents insurance regulators and supervisors of some 190 jurisdictions and issues global insurance principles, standards and guidance papers, organises meetings, provides training and support on issues related to insurance supervision: www.iaisweb.org
The International Consumer Protection and Enforcement Network (ICPEN) is composed of consumer protection authorities from 40 countries, whose aim includes to share information about cross-border commercial activities that may affect consumer welfare and encourage global cooperation among law enforcement agencies: https://icpen.org
The International Competition Network provides competition authorities with a specialized yet informal venue for maintaining regular contacts and addressing practical competition concerns: www.internationalcompetitionnetwork.org
The International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC) is an international cooperation of laboratory and inspection accreditation bodies formed to help remove technical barriers to trade. www.ilac.org/home.html
The International Accreditation Forum (IAF) is the world association of Conformity Assessment Accreditation Bodies and other bodies interested in conformity assessment in the fields of management systems, products, services, personnel and other similar programmes of conformity assessment. www.iaf.nu
The Pharmaceutical Inspection Cooperation Scheme (PIC/S) facilitates the networking between participating authorities and the maintenance of mutual confidence, the exchange of information and experience in the field of good manufacturing practices and the mutual training of GMP inspectors: www.picscheme.org/pics.php
The Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) was adopted in 2006 by over 100 governments to foster the sound management of chemicals and ensure that by 2020, chemicals are produced and used in ways that minimize significant adverse impacts on the environment and human health: www.saicm.org
The Global Harmonisation Task Force (GHTF) is a partnership between regulatory authorities and regulated industry to achieve greater uniformity between national medical device regulatory systems. It is comprised of five Founding Members (EU, US, Canada, Australia and Japan): www.ghtf.org
Source: OECD own elaboration based on answers to the OECD IRC survey and websites of the organisations.