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  • 11-August-2009

    English, , 197kb

    Lessons from Australian and British Reforms in Results oriented Financial Management

    Reform of government financial management systems in the past decade has seen developments in accrual accounting and in results-based budgeting and reporting. Australia has worked with an accrual-based framework for outcomes and outputs budgeting and reporting since fiscal year 1999/2000. The United Kingdom moved to a resource-based (or accrual-based) financial management system in April 2001. This article evaluates the Australian and

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  • 11-August-2009

    English, , 121kb

    Fiscal Discipline between Levels of Government in Germany

    The essential actors in co-ordinating fiscal discipline in Germany are the Federation and the 16 Länder. This article presents an overview of the legal basis of the budgetary process and how it is designed with respect to Federation-Länder relations. Developments since 1945 are also described, including the budget reform of 1969, German adherence to the European Economic and Monetary Union, and the work of the Federalism Commission

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  • 11-August-2009

    English, , 103kb

    Accountability and Control in the Financing of Local Government in Denmark

    In Denmark, nearly all public services for individuals and families are delegated to local authorities, resulting in high quality and flexible delivery. The financing of these services is mostly ensured by tax revenues determined by the individual local authority but linked to the central government income tax. Local accountability in this regard has recently been called into question. Although local borrowing is strictly controlled,

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  • 11-August-2009

    English, , 175kb

    The United Kingdom Private Finance Initiative

    Since 1992, the United Kingdom has used a new type of public-private partnership for the delivery of public services: the Private Finance Initiative. In the design of PFI projects, the assessment of risk, and who is best able to manage it, needs to be carefully considered.

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  • 11-August-2009

    English, , 192kb

    Accountability Institutions and the Policy Process: The United States Experience

    Accountability is now acknowledged as an important element in good governance in the public sector. The term itself is complex, covering many aspects including: the move from accounting to accountability; the need to increase transparency; the importance of the political interface; the distinction between internal and external accountability; the use of accountability information; the interaction of accountability systems with other

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  • 10-August-2009

    English, , 131kb

    The Medium-Term Fiscal Framework in Sweden

    Since 1997, a medium-term fiscal framework has been applied to virtually all aspects of budget preparation in Sweden. The longer three-year horizon has enabled better fiscal discipline through the use of fiscal targets and advanced forecasting models. Particular attention is placed on ensuring the consistency and quality of forecasts. In addition, forecasting of revenues and expenditures is an exercise that involves all levels of the

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  • 10-August-2009

    English, , 221kb

    Malawi: Lessons Learnt from First Reforms Lead to New Approach

    Malawi provides valuable experience on the advantages of a holistic approach when attempting reforms, and on how to manage longer reform programmes. Since 1995, the budget process has been based on the principles of the Medium-term Expenditure Framework. This article presents the findings of a comprehensive review of the MTEF in 1999/2000 which examined its strengths and weaknesses, the possible causes and the proposed reforms

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  • 10-August-2009

    English, , 234kb

    Public Investment in the United Kingdom

    The new fiscal and expenditure policy framework adopted in the United Kingdom in 1997 included clear fiscal rules and a reformed system of budgetary controls and capital appraisal procedures. Those macro and micro reforms also allowed the historic shortfall in public investment to be addressed. This article lays out some general considerations for public investment policy, including involving the private sector, and describes how the

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  • 10-August-2009

    English, , 179kb

    Uganda: A Decade of Budget Reform and Poverty Reduction

    Uganda’s economy has undergone major fluctuations from a vibrant economy in the 1960s, to suffering severe macroeconomic imbalances in the 1970s and 1980s, to enjoying an economic revival since the late 1980s. A key focus of recent public financial management reforms has been to improve macroeconomic performance and ensure strict budgetary discipline, in particular through the use of a three-year rolling budgetary plan as early as

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  • 10-August-2009

    English, , 439kb

    Competitiveness and Modernisation of Public Finances: Selecting an Action Scenario in Hungary Following EU Accession

    The most important strategic tasks of Hungarian economic policy are to complete the process of European integration, to build up the appropriate institutional and social capacities and to harmonise real and nominal convergence. This article discusses a theoretical framework for modernisation and how it could be adapted to the Hungarian public sector. Several action scenarios are discussed, but any reforms should aim to rethink the

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