This report examines governance frameworks to counter illicit trade. It looks at the
adequacy and effectiveness of sanctions and penalties applicable, the steps parties
engaged in illicit trade take to lower the risk of detection - for example through
small shipments - and the use of free trade zones as hubs for managing trade in illicit
products. It also identifies gaps in enforcement that may need to be addressed. The
report provides an overview of selected enforcement issues in BRICS economies (Brazil,
China, India, the Russian Federation and South Africa).