Counterfeit and pirated products come from many economies, with China appearing as the single largest producing market. These illegal products are frequently found in a range of industries, from luxury items (e.g. fashion apparel or deluxe watches), via intermediary products (such as machines, spare parts or chemicals) to consumer goods that have an impact on personal health and safety (such as pharmaceuticals, food and drink, medical equipment, or toys). This report assess the quantitative value, scope and trends of this illegal trade.
This report assesses the Republic of Kazakhstan’s significant efforts to improve water supply and sanitation (WSS) services over the past 15 years, notably in terms of ambitious target-setting, implementation of a sound water tariff policy, and significant investment in the rehabilitation and development of relevant infrastructure. Generally speaking, the absence of updated data on WSS institutional development is a limiting factor for further policy and programme development in the field, including in Kazakhstan. The monitoring and evaluation system proposed in this report aims to help assess progress in the WSS sector and serve as a basis for any necessary corrective measures.
Le secteur des minerais offre de belles perspectives économiques. Il génère des revenus, crée de l’emploi et nourrit le développement local. Malheureusement, une bonne part des exploitations minières se situent dans des zones de conflit ou à haut risque, et sont souvent impliquées, directement ou indirectement, dans des conflits armés ou des violations de droits humains, entravant le progrès social et la croissance économique. Le Guide OCDE sur le devoir de diligence pour des chaînes d’approvisionnement responsables en minerais provenant de zones de conflit adresse aux entreprises du secteur des minerais des recommandations pratiques, visées par les pouvoirs publics, pour les aider à adopter des pratiques responsables, à respecter les droits humains et à rompre tout lien avec d’éventuels conflits. Le Guide OCDE sur les minerais concerne toute entreprise susceptible d’exploiter tout type de minerais ou de métaux dans des zones de conflit ou à haut risque, et a pour objectif d’améliorer la transparence des chaînes d’approvisionnement et d’assurer un engagement durable des entreprises dans le secteur des minerais.
Since the start of the economic reform process in the 70s China has been able to generate a large volume of investment, both from domestic and foreign sources. This high volume of investment was instrumental in sustaining strong economic growth and related improvements in living standards. However, this growth model is not longer sustainable. Returns on investment have fallen, excessive capacity is plaguing several sectors and the negative externalities have been very onerous, notably in terms of environmental degradation and rising income inequality. A key objective of the Chinese government is therefore to move the economy towards a more balanced, sustainable and inclusive growth path as envisaged by the 13th Five-Year Plan. In this adjustment process, the country is seeking new approaches for smarter, greener and more productive investment. This will require mutually reinforcing reforms to improve investment planning, rebalance the role of government and market forces, mainstream responsible business conduct and encourage greater private investment, especially in green infrastructure. China’s growing role as an outward investor may act as catalyser for the required reforms at home, as Chinese private and state-owned enterprises have to adopt internationally recognised practices and standards .
Whistleblower protection is essential for safeguarding the public interest, for promoting a culture of accountability and integrity in both public and private institutions, and for encouraging the reporting of misconduct, fraud and corruption wherever it occurs. While many countries are increasingly developing legal frameworks to protect whistleblowers, more can be done to mainstream integrity and promote open organisational cultures. This report analyses whistleblower protection frameworks in OECD countries, identifies areas for reform and proposes next steps to strengthen effective and comprehensive whistleblower protection laws in both the public and private sectors.
These country reports present an overview of investment trends and policies in the countries reviewed. This can include investment policy, investment promotion and facilitation, infrastructure, competition policy, trade policy, tax policy, corporate governance, responsible business conduct, public governance, and human resources.
The OECD is developing a Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains in the Garment and Footwear Sector. The OECD is hosting a month-long public consultation on the draft Guidance. The feedback received during the consultation will inform the final Guidance.
The State continues to remain an important shareholder in listed companies worldwide, especially among emerging economies, which rely increasingly on mixed-ownership models. With the benefit of hindsight and more recent examples, this book provides fresh perspectives on the motivation to list state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and the process it entails. Drawing from the experiences of five economies (People's Republic of China, India, New Zealand, Poland and Turkey), the book concludes that broadened ownership generally has a positive impact on the governance and performance of these companies. However, country practices show that the act of listing cannot guarantee that these companies are completely averse to State interests; and deviations from sound corporate governance practices, as enshrined in the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of SOEs, can in some cases, raise concerns with regards to non-State shareholder rights, commercial orientation, board independence, conflicting State objectives, transparency, disclosure and more.
This Network was created in 2011 to enhance the governance of State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) in the region through an ongoing exchange of experience and knowledge on SOE governance policies.
When companies involve stakeholders, such as local communities, in their decision making, it enables them to identify, and account for the impacts of their activities, and contribute to positive social and economic development. To address the challenges raised when engaging with stakeholders, the OECD is preparing a user guide on how to undertake due diligence in engaging with stakeholders for mining, oil and gas enterprises.